ELISPOT

Der ELISpot Assay (Enzyme Linked Immuno Spot Assay) dient zum Nachweis sezernierter Zytokine oder Antikörper, die von einzelnen Immunzellen nach Stimulation mit Antigenen sezerniert und an einer Membran immobilisiert werden.

Die selektive Bindung der sezernierten Proteine erfolgt analog zum ELISA, jedoch mit auf einer undurchsichtigen Membran (meistens aus PVDF) immobilisierten Antikörpern (engl. coating antibody oder auch capture antibody). Nach der Beschichtung der Membranen im Mikrotiterplattenformat mit dem Erstantikörper werden die verbliebenen unspezifischen Proteinbindungsstellen der Membranen mit sterilen FCS- oder BSA-Lösungen blockiert. Die beschichteten Platten werden im Anschluss mit den sezernierenden Zellen und einem zu untersuchenden Stimulus (z. B. ein Antigen oder ein daraus abgeleitetes Peptid) versehen. Die sezernierten Zytokine oder Antikörper binden an den immobilisierten Erstantikörper. Nach einer erschütterungsfreien Inkubationsdauer, üblicherweise zwischen 16 Stunden und 48 Stunden, werden die Zellen entfernt und die Detektion kann unter unsterilen Bedingungen erfolgen. Bei Erschütterungen kommt es bei nicht-adhärenten Zellen (synonym: Suspensionszellen) zu Lateralbewegungen und zu einer fälschlicherweise erhöhten Anzahl an Spots.
Nach der Inkubationsdauer werden die Zellen entfernt und eine Immunfärbung der sezernierten Zytokine oder Antikörper durchgeführt. Die Detektion erfolgt über die selektive Bindung eines zweiten, meistens biotinylierten Antikörpers gegen ein anderes Epitop des nachzuweisenden Zytokins, meistens gefolgt von der Bindung eines Streptavidins mit gekoppeltem Reporterenzym und dem Ausfallen eines Farbstoffs an der Sekretionsstelle. Zur Messung der Reaktion von zytotoxischen T-Zellen wird als Zytokin oftmals Interferon-γ gemessen. Durch ein Farbstoffsubstrat umsetzendes Enzym, welches an den zweiten Antikörper oder an einen weiteren Signalamplifikator (z. B. biotinylierte Detektionsantikörper und Avidin-Konjugate oder Detektionsantikörper und polyklonale anti-Fc-Antikörper-Konjugate) gekoppelt ist, fällt der Farbstoff an der Sekretionsstelle aus. Dies erlaubt je nach Farbstoff eine Darstellung der Zytokine als kleine rote (Naphthol-AS-MX-Phosphat/Fast Red TR oder H2O2/AEC), braune (mit H2O2 und DAB oder TMB) oder blaue Punkte (mit NBT/BCIP) Wellensteyn Damenjacken 2016, mit einem Durchmesser von 75 bis 400 µm sichtbar zu machen. Durch Vergleich mit den entsprechenden Negativkontrollen (mit einem irrelevanten Antigen oder Peptid) kann eine Reaktion nachgewiesen werden. Eine Positivkontrolle mit einem Mitogen wie Pokeweed Mitogen (PWM) oder Phorbol-12-myristat-13-acetat (PMA) zeigt die erfolgreiche Durchführung des ELISpots an, beispielsweise ob die verwendeten Zellen noch lebend waren Billig Bogner Skijacke. Das Mitogen erzeugt eine Antigen-unabhängige Aktivierung der Zellen und eine folgende Sekretion des gesuchten Immunbotenstoffs. Die automatische Auszählung mittels Kamera und Software bestimmt bei den gefärbten und getrockneten Platten, wie viele der eingesetzten Zellen in jedem Ansatz reagierten und mit welcher Intensität (Spotfläche, Spot-Farbsättigung) sie reagierten.
Diese Methode findet unter anderem in der Diagnostik von Autoimmunerkrankungen, Transplantationsrisiken, Allergien und Infektionskrankheiten oder auch in der Impfstoffentwicklung Anwendung. Bei T-Zellen und B-Zellen werden ELISpots zur Messung von Zytokinreaktionen nach Peptidstimulation durchgeführt, um immunogene T- und B-Zell-Epitope zu identifizieren (engl. epitope mapping für ‚Epitopkartierung‘). Durch ELISPOT identifizierte Epitope sind z billige adidas Fußball Jerseys. B. in der IEDB registriert

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Kimberley (Afrique du Sud)

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Afrique du Sud
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Afrique du Sud
Kimberley est une ville d’Afrique du Sud située à 1 230 mètres d’altitude dans la province du Cap-du-Nord, en plein désert du Grand Karoo.
Kimberley compte 220 000 habitants et fait partie de la nouvelle municipalité post-apartheid de Sol Plaatje.
Elle est la capitale de la province.
Kimberley se trouve dans la région historique du Griqualand Ouest, abandonné au XIXe siècle aux métis émigrés du Cap.

C’est en 1867 bogner ski wear, à Hopetown, à 120 kilomètres au sud de Kimberley, que le diamant Eureka fut découvert par un enfant, déclenchant une véritable ruée vers le diamant.
En 1871, trois diamants sont découverts au sommet d’une petite colline autour de laquelle va naître la ville de Kimberley, du nom du secrétaire britannique aux colonies.
La colline est alors creusée par les centaines de mineurs et aventuriers à la recherche de diamant et devenir le Big Hole, le grand trou, au bord duquel la ville va prospérer et devenir la première ville électrifiée d’Afrique.
Le Britannique Cecil Rhodes va fonder sa fortune à Kimberley en rachetant la compagnie minière De Beers puis devenir le 1er ministre de la colonie du Cap en 1890.
Assiégée en 1899 par les Boers en guerre contre les Britanniques, c’est une ville anglophone et métisse, rivale de l’africaine Bloemfontein dans l’État libre d’Orange.
C’est dans cette ville, qu’en mai 2000, a débuté le processus de Kimberley, un accord international signé en 2003 et destiné à lutter contre les diamants de conflits

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La municipalité est politiquement aujourd’hui dominée par l’ANC mais l’opposition de l’Alliance démocratique y effectue d’excellents scores bien qu’elle ait échoué de peu à plusieurs reprises à emporter la majorité des suffrages. Le maire de la municipalité est, en décembre 2004, Patrick Lenyibi (ANC).
Lors des élections municipales de 2006, l’ANC remporte 40 des 55 sièges du conseil municipal en laissant seulement 10 à l’Alliance démocratique et 2 aux démocrates indépendants.
La ville est injustement ignorée par les visiteurs étrangers car elle est trop située hors des circuits touristiques traditionnels. Seuls les amateurs d’histoire et les spécialistes de l’Afrique du Sud se rendent à Kimberley adidas soccer jerseys 2016 outlet.
La ville mérite effectivement une visite et pas seulement pour le Big Hole qui, il est vrai, est son attraction principale.
Ainsi la visite commencera par le Kimberley Mine Museum sur Tucker Street avec son impressionnant Big Hole, le plus grand puits jamais creusé par l’homme. Ce musée est en fait un village, reproduction à ciel ouvert sur 17 hectares de Kimberley à l’époque de la ruée vers le diamant.
Le centre-ville aligne buildings modernes et édifices coloniaux comme l’hôtel de ville sur lennox street. Tout proche, un mémorial de rocs en équilibre honore la 1re colonne de pionniers partis en 1890 pour coloniser la future Rhodésie (aujourd’hui le Zimbabwe). On peut aussi visiter dans le quartier la galerie d’art William Humphrey ou le musée Sol Plaatje, du nom du militant anti-apartheid, premier noir à écrire un roman en anglais et qui a donné son nom à la nouvelle municipalité.
Les visiteurs peuvent aussi admirer les bureaux historiques (1888) de la De Beers sur Stockdale Street.
Au sud-est de la ville, le Honoured Dead Memorial, conçu par Herbert Baker, commémore les victimes du siège de 1899 et fait écho au Concentration Camp Mémorial sur Hertzog Square, qui honore les familles boers, victimes des camps de concentration britanniques.
D’autres monuments sont notables, comme le Kimberley War Memorial, le Cape Corps Memorial et surtout la statue équestre de Cecil Rhodes (1907) sur Du Toitspan Road.
Enfin, les visiteurs apprécieront le quartier de Belgravia avec ses maisons victoriennes notamment sur Milner Street et sur Carrington Road, la villa Dunluce sur Lodge Road, le McGregor Museum situé dans les bâtiments de l’ancien sanatorium (1897), le Duggan-Cronin Gallery et ses milliers de clichés photographiques de l’Afrique du Sud des années 1920 et 1930.
Les environs de Kimberley ne sont pas dépourvus d’intérêt.
Les visiteurs pourront se rendre au Parc national de Mokala à une cinquantaine de kilomètres au nord-ouest où une réserve de 23 000 hectares permet d’apprécier les paysages, la faune et la flore du Karoo et du Kalahari.
Situés à cinquante kilomètres au sud de Kimberley maillots de football 2016, les passionnés d’histoire ne manqueront pas de se rendre sur le champ de bataille de Magersfontein où se sont opposés Boers et Britanniques en 1899. Ils y visiteront aussi le musée et se rendront au Magersfontein Burgher Monument (1969) honorant les héros de la nation et sous lequel reposent près de 300 combattants de la guerre des Boers parmi lesquels le comte français Georges de Villebois-Mareuil, colonel de l’armée française, ancien commandant de la légion étrangère, volontaire promu général de l’armée du Transvaal, tué en 1900 au combat à Boshof.
L’aéroport de Kimberley (ex-B.J Vorster Airport) est situé à 7 kilomètres au sud du centre ville.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Maria’s Lovers

Maria’s Lovers is a 1984 drama film directed by Andrei Konchalovsky and starring Nastassja Kinski, John Savage 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, and Robert Mitchum. The plot follows a soldier returning from World War II who marries the woman of his dreams, but he is unable to consummate his marriage ruining the couples chances of a shared happiness.

In the spring of 1946, Ivan, an American soldier, returns home psychologically scarred after spending some time in a Japanese prison camp during World War II. Once back in his small Pennsylvania town, Ivan settles in, trying to put his life back together while living with his stoic peasant father.
Shortly after his arrival, Ivan looks for his childhood sweetheart, Maria, a beautiful woman who is taking care of her old deaf grandmother. However, he is disappointed to find Maria in the arms of Al, a captain 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. Ivan’s father thinks that Maria is too good for his son, but perhaps good enough for himself. He pairs his son with Mrs Wynic, a flirty neighbor. Ivan has sex with her 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, but he is tormented by the traumas of the war. He tells her that it was his dreams about Maria that allowed him to survive the prison camp.
Ivan is given a hero’s welcoming by his community, formed by immigrants from Yugoslavia. During the celebrations, when Al goes to dance with one of Maria’s friends, Ivan grabs the opportunity to get close to her. Together they leave the party in his motorbike, heading for their favorite spot of years ago. He gives her a pair of earrings that he planted there for her, before leaving for the war. The next morning, Al is furious and breaks his relationship with Maria. Ivan’s goal is fulfilled and he marries Maria in an orthodox ceremony, but his dream of a happiness shared with Maria is soon broken. Having adored Maria for so long from afar, now that they are together, Ivan is unable to consummate their marriage, disturbing their happiness.
Maria works as a nurse and would like to have children. Deeply in love with Ivan, she has to deal with her increasing sexual frustration. On the advice of Clarence, a drifter singer passing by the town, Ivan reaffirms his sense of manliness with Mrs Wynic, with whom he is not impotent. Maria discovers Ivan’s infidelity, and a terrible argument ensues between them. Al invites the couple to his engagement party to Maria’s girlfriend. In the middle of this gathering, Al breaks off his engagement, realizing that he is still in love with Maria. Al and Ivan have a confrontation. Ivan offers to let Al have Maria 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, but to demonstrate his own love for Maria, he puts his hand in a burning stove. Maria, very much in love with Ivan, tells Al that she does not love him.
Maria heals Ivan’s hand, but the unhappiness between them increases further. She is pursued by Clarence who tries to seduce her, but she remains faithful to Ivan and resist Clarence’s advances. One day, unexpectedly, Ivan ups and leaves town by train. Moving to a new city, he starts work in a slaughter house, making new friends. Left to her own devices, Maria finally succumbs to Clarence’s advances, but immediately vehemently rejects him, consequently getting pregnant. Maria searches out Ivan and tells him of her pregnancy and of the death of her grandmother, but Ivan is now cruelly indifferent towards her.
Whilst out with his friends one night, Ivan meets up with Clarence. Clarence does not remember him and tells the story of how he seduced Maria, and that she later refused to have anything further to do with him. Furious, Ivan hits a still incredulous Clarence.
Ivan, still tormented by nightmares of his war experiences, is visited by his father, who tells Ivan that he is dying and that he must come back to Maria. Ivan returns home, admitting to Maria that he loves her baby. Now that Maria’s chaste image has vanished, she and Ivan are able to make love for the first time.
The film was released on DVD in the United States in December 2001.

Interkosmos

Interkosmos war ein wissenschaftliches Programm der Sowjetunion zur Einbindung nicht-sowjetischer Technik in das sowjetische Raumfahrtprogramm. Zur Umsetzung wurde im Ostblock bald nach dem Start des ersten Sputnik 1957 eine gleichnamige Vereinigung zur friedlichen Erforschung des Weltraums mit internationalen Mitteln der Raumfahrt gegründet. Im Rahmen des Interkosmos-Programms wurde erstmals Raumfahrern anderer Nationen die Teilnahme an Raumflügen ermöglicht. Auf der Basis der Erfahrungen der Interkosmos-Zusammenarbeit wurden dann auch ähnliche Programme mit anderen Staaten (Frankreich, Indien, Syrien, Afghanistan) vereinbart.
Das „Abkommen über die Beteiligung an der Erforschung und Nutzung des Weltraumes mit Hilfe von künstlichen Erdsatelliten zu friedlichen Zwecken“ wurde 1967 zwischen den Regierungen der Sowjetunion und der weiteren sozialistischen Länder abgeschlossen und bestand bis 1990.
Ähnlich der internationalen Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) förderte Interkosmos die Astronomie mit Erdsatelliten, Ballonsonden, Höhenforschungsraketen sowie Raumsonden. Die Kooperation hatte jedoch keine eigene internationale Institution wie etwa die Europäische Weltraumorganisation (ESA) 2016 fußball trikots outlet, die ein eigenes Budget aus den Beiträgen der Teilnehmerstaaten hat.

Bei Interkosmos musste jede Seite alle im eigenen Bereich anfallenden Kosten selbst tragen Discount Nike Strumpf Steckdose 2016. Die Sowjetunion stellte vor allem die Raketen und die Sojus-Raumschiffe zur Verfügung und forderte von den anderen Staaten die Entwicklung und Bereitstellung eigener Geräte, Messinstrumente und Anlagen für den Einsatz auf der sowjetischen Trägertechnik.
Die Aktivitäten der etwa zehn Mitgliedsstaaten führten zu zahlreichen gemeinsamen Projekten der Weltraumforschung, unter anderem zum ausgedehnten Programm der Kosmos-Satelliten zwischen etwa 1965 und 1990 und zu intensivem Austausch der beteiligten Wissenschaftler und Organisationen. Die Interkosmos-Kongresse fanden in ein- bis zweijährigem Rhythmus mit dazwischen liegenden Spezialtagungen statt.
Es bestand ein eigenes Koordinierungskomitee Interkosmos (KoKo), dessen stellvertretender Vorsitzender Heinz Kautzleben 1988 wurde, wobei er gleichzeitig den Vorsitz des wissenschaftlichen Beirates des KoKo übernahm.
Mit dem Besuch des tschechoslowakischen Interkosmonauten Vladimír Remek 1978 – dem ersten Raumfahrer, der nicht aus den USA bzw. der Sowjetunion kam – wurden die Möglichkeiten der Raumstation Saljut 6 erweitert. Einerseits konnten propagandistisch wirksame Erstleistungen sozialistischer Staaten (jeweils Erstflug für das Gastland) erzielt werden, andererseits wurden die wissenschaftlichen Potentiale dieser Länder nach ersten unbemannten Satelliten auch für den bemannten Weltraumflug erschlossen. Dabei wurden die Regeln der Interkosmos-Organisation weiterentwickelt. Sowohl der Ablauf als auch die propagandistische Ausgestaltung (z. B. Pressearbeit, Abzeichen) der Missionen baute auf den Erfahrungen des Apollo-Sojus-Test-Projekts auf.
Kern der relativ einheitlichen Interkosmos-Missionen waren daher Übertragungen des Starts, von Gesprächen mit den jeweiligen Partei- bzw. Staatschefs und Grüße an die Heimatbevölkerung. Daneben wurden Beobachtungen und Aufnahmen (auch multispektral mit der MKF 6) des Heimatlandes des Gastes, medizinisch-biologische Untersuchungen und Experimente mit landestypischen Produkten durchgeführt. Der Gastbesuch war auf ca. 7 Tage und 21,5 Stunden (mit nur einer Toleranz von ± 1 Stunde) ausgelegt. Die Vorbereitung dieser Missionen benötigte nicht besonders viel Zeit, da meist auf in der Sowjetunion ausgebildete (also sprachkundige) Militärflieger zurückgegriffen werden konnte.
Am 26. August 1978 startete der dritte bemannte Raumflug des Interkosmos-Programms mit Sojus 31 zur Raumstation Saljut 6 Bogner Jacken Sale. Die Kosmonauten waren Waleri Bykowski und der Vogtländer und NVA-Oberst Sigmund Jähn. Das Debüt der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fand fünf Jahre später mit Ulf Merbold an Bord von STS-9 statt. Die Mission war wissenschaftlich sehr erfolgreich und einige Geräte „made in GDR“ bewährten sich – vor allem die Multispektralkamera MKF 6.
Zu weiteren Flügen mit DDR-Piloten kam es allerdings nicht – dafür hätte die Sowjetunion satzungsgemäß Geld verlangt. Nach der Wende arbeitete Jähn für das Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) sowie für die ESA. Dabei wirkte er als erfolgreicher Vermittler zwischen russischen, deutschen und ESA-Projekten, die etwa die anlaufende Kooperation mit der Raumstation Mir und inzwischen auch mit der ISS vorbereiteten fußball trikots 2016.
Der Interkosmosflug Sojus 33, an dem der bulgarische Kosmonaut Iwanow teilnahm, musste vorzeitig beendet werden, weil die Ankopplung an die Raumstation Saljut 6 misslang. Der Flug wurde neun Jahre später mit Sojus TM-5 und Iwanows Ersatzmann Alexandar Panaiotow Alexandrow nachgeholt.
Schon im ersten Jahrzehnt seit Sputnik 1 befassten sich viele Einrichtungen der DDR mit der Nutzung der Raumfahrt – vor allem in Geowissenschaften, Astronomie und Anwendungen der neuen Techniken auf einzelnen Fachgebieten:
Im Rahmen von Intersputnik beteiligte man sich
Der Asteroid (2365) Interkosmos ist nach dem Programm benannt.

Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum

The Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (CSEL) is an academic series that publishes critical editions of Latin works by late-antique Christian authors.

The CSEL publishes Latin writings of Christian authors from the time of the late 2nd century (Tertullian) until the beginning of the 8th century (Bede the Venerable, †735) 2016 chanel kleding. Each text is edited on the basis of all (or the most important of all) the extant manuscripts according to modern editorial techniques, in order to produce a text as close as possible to the original. Each volume includes an introduction, in which the principles of the preparation of the text are explained. Some editions are prepared by the staff of the CSEL prada schoenen 2016, others by external, internationally renowned experts; the volumes are published after a positive evaluation by an international advisory board; the publisher is De Gruyter (prior to 2012: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften). The CSEL also runs the online database Edenda 2016 dior kleding, where CSEL editions as well as editing projects by others are publicly announced. In addition, the CSEL publishes special catalogues for the large extant corpus of medieval manuscripts containing works of Augustine or ascribed to him („Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der Werke des heiligen Augustinus“), in order to make time-consuming research in this field easier. In addition, monographs on topics related to the Latin patristic period and conference proceedings are published at irregular intervals („CSEL Extra seriem“).
The CSEL was founded in 1864 by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna (-> Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften) in order to produce critical editions of Latin patristic texts – editions that were meant to facilitate the lexicographical work of the Thesaurus linguae Latinae (at that time still in the planning stages). Before the year 2012 the CSEL was edited by the “Kommission zur Herausgabe des Corpus der lateinischen Kirchenväter” (“Kirchenväterkommission”) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The chairmen of this commission were:
After the commission was transferred to the University of Salzburg in 2012, the CSEL became part of the Department of Ancient Studies / Latin at the University of Salzburg.
The series currently consists of about 100 volumes, some with multiple sub-volumes. These volumes have replaced about a third of J. P. Migne’s Patrologia Latina, which do not offer critical editions prada tassen 2016. Some CSEL volumes have themselves been replaced by more recent critical editions (e.g., Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, Sources chrétiennes, Bibliothèque augustinienne), but about two-thirds of them are still considered authoritative standard editions; in fact, the CSEL edition often remains the only critical edition of a given text. In the course of work on the manuscript catalogues as well as on the preparation of CSEL editions, patristic texts which were previously thought lost have been recovered: e.g., the writings of the Spanish heretic Priscillian, the commentary on Revelation by Victorinus of Pettau, 29 unknown letters of Augustine („Epistulae Divjak“), six of Augustine’s sermons („Sermones Erfurt“), and the full text of the commentary on the gospels by Fortunatianus of Aquileia (mid-4th century; edition in preparation). Numerous volumes of the CSEL were incorporated into the digital Library of Latin Texts (LLT).

Guangxi Campaign

The Guangxi Campaign was a campaign fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War in the post-World War II era and resulted in communist victory 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online.
After the nationalist offensive in the southern front had been defeated by the advance communist, Bai Chongxi ordered the nationalist III Corps and XI Corps to immediately retreat. The communist forces at the southern front consisted of units of the communist II Field Army and Fourth Field Army begun the pursuit on November 27, 1949 Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016. To boost morale, the nationalist commander-in-chief Zhang Gan (张淦) decided to be the last to retreat and his III Corps headquarters remained behind in the town of Bobai (博白), but this was detected by the attack communists in the afternoon of December 30, 1949. Two regiments of the communist 43rd Army was immediately dispatched to attack the town and reached the town by 8:00 PM on the same day. After breaching the defense of the town at the northern and eastern gates, the attacking communists managed to besiege the surviving nationalists at their corps headquarters located in the library building. After fierce street fights 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, the battle ended on 10:30 PM on December 30, 1949 with communist victory, and Zhang Gan (张淦), the nationalist commander-in-chief of the III Corps was captured alive with most of his staff. Meantime, the forces of the communist IV Corps from regions of Hua (化) county, and Zhangjiang (漳江) had badly mauled the 48th Army of the nationalist III Corps and then also approached the town of Bobai (博白).
While the communists were attacking the besieged the town of Bobai (博白), the nationalist commander-in-chief Zhang Gan (张淦) ordered the 7th Army, 48th Army and 126th Army of the III Corps to counterattack toward the town. In the early morning of December 1, 1949, the three nationalist armies had approached the town of Bobai (博白), but as the nationalists learned that their corps headquarters had been annihilated and their commander-in-chief was captured alive by the enemy, the nationalist morale collapsed. Taking the advantage of the situation, the communist 43rd Army, 14th Army and 15th Army immediately launched an offensive against the three nationalist armies, and by 3:00 pm, the campaign concluded with the most of nationalists killed or captured.
The communist victory of Bobai Campaign (博白战役) resulted in the near total annihilation of the nationalist III Corps, with the exception of a portion of nationalist 126th Army successfully retreating westward. The loss of the nationalist III Corps resulted in the further weakening of the nationalist defense in Guangxi while the communist victory of Guangxi Campaign was further guaranteed.
Communist Party /  People’s Republic of China ( Red Army → 8th Route Army Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016, N4A, etc. → People’s Liberation Army)
Tibet (Tibetan Army)

William Wallace

« Pro Libertate! »
« Per la Libertà! »
Sir William Wallace, in scozzese medievale: Uilliam Uallas; scozzese moderno: Uilleam Uallas; latino: Guillelmum le Walois de Scotia militem (Elderslie, 1270 – Smithfield, 23 agosto 1305), è stato un condottiero scozzese che guidò i suoi connazionali alla ribellione contro l’occupazione della Scozia da parte degli Inglesi; nel quadro delle Guerre di indipendenza scozzesi, Wallace combatté anche contro re Edoardo I d’Inghilterra. È considerato l’eroe nazionale scozzese.
La visione popolare consolidata spesso descrive Wallace come una „persona del popolo“, in contrasto con il connazionale Roberto di Scozia, che era di nobile lignaggio. Tuttavia, a seguito delle eroiche imprese conseguite, Wallace divenne ben presto simbolo dell’assoluta libertà tanto agognata dal popolo scozzese.

John Balliol vantava un diritto al trono scozzese. Comunque, venne ritenuto necessario che un arbitro indipendente venisse invitato in Scozia, così che nessuna accusa di parzialità potesse venirgli mossa. Con un gesto folle, gli scozzesi invitarono Edoardo I d’Inghilterra a decidere della successione al trono scozzese. Invece di giungere come arbitro indipendente, egli si presentò al confine anglo-scozzese con una grossa armata e annunciò di essere un capo supremo, venuto a risolvere una disputa in uno stato vassallo, costringendo ogni re potenziale a rendergli omaggio. Dopo aver ascoltato tutte le pretese, Edoardo scelse John Balliol, come re di quello che descriveva come lo stato vassallo di Scozia.
Nel marzo del 1296, Balliol rinunciò a rendere omaggio a Edoardo, e per la fine del mese Edoardo prese d’assalto Berwick-upon-Tweed, saccheggiando le città di confine e spargendo molto sangue. In aprile, sconfisse gli scozzesi nella battaglia di Dunbar nel Lothian, ed entro luglio aveva costretto Balliol ad abdicare al castello di Kincardine

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. Edoardo si recò a Berwick in agosto per ricevere formale omaggio da circa 2.000 capi scozzesi, avendo precedentemente rimosso la Pietra del destino dal Palazzo di Scone, reggia dei re scozzesi. La Scozia veniva a trovarsi sotto l’effettivo dominio inglese.
La famiglia di Wallace discendeva da Richard Wallace (Richard il Gallese)

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, un possidente terriero che visse sotto i primi membri della famiglia Stuart, poi famiglia reale a pieno titolo. Wallace nacque a Elderslie, nel Renfrewshire (vicino a Kilmarnock, Ayrshire) attorno al 1270, il che lo rendeva ancor giovane negli anni di maggior splendore personale, tra il 1297 e il 1305. Esistono poche fonti di informazione contemporanee sulla gioventù di Wallace, e si pone molto affidamento sul resoconto di Harry il Cieco, scritto attorno al 1470, circa due secoli dopo la nascita di Wallace. Egli ci dice che nacque nell’Ayrshire, suo padre era Sir Malcolm Wallace di Riccarton, e che aveva due fratelli, Malcolm e John. Il nome del padre di William, secondo una lettera datata 1297, potrebbe essere anche Alan.
William ricevette la sua educazione da due zii che erano sacerdoti, e quindi godette di una cultura superiore alla media dell’epoca, conoscendo sia il francese che il latino. Harry il Cieco non fa menzione del fatto che abbia mai lasciato la nazione, o che avesse avuto alcuna esperienza militare prima del 1297. Una registrazione dell’agosto 1296 fa semplicemente riferimento a un ladro, un William le Waleys, a Perth. Secondo alcuni storici, come Andrew Fisher, Wallace avrebbe avuto qualche esperienza militare, probabilmente come soldato mercenario. Walter Bower afferma che Wallace era un uomo alto, con il corpo di un gigante, forti braccia e gambe. Secondo Harry il Cieco, Wallace era alto due metri.
L’anno seguente, il 1297, vide l’inizio dell’ascesa di Wallace. Secondo la leggenda locale dell’Ayrshire, Wallace venne fermato da due soldati inglesi per dei pesci che aveva pescato. La discussione degenerò in una vera e propria rissa, con il risultato che Wallace uccise i soldati. Un mandato per il suo arresto venne emesso poco dopo. Vera o falsa che sia questa storia, è chiaro che Wallace nutriva da lungo tempo un odio per gli inglesi, basato in parte sulla morte del padre per mano loro, avvenuta nel 1291. Wallace vendicò ulteriormente la perdita del padre vincendo battaglie a Loudoun Hill (nei pressi di Darvel, Ayrshire) e ad Ayr.
A maggio combatté assieme a Sir William Douglas, a Scone, mettendo in fuga l’amministratore giudiziario inglese. I sostenitori della sempre più popolare rivolta soffrirono un duro colpo quando a luglio i nobili scozzesi scesero a patti con l’Inghilterra, a Irvine, e in agosto Wallace lasciò la sua base nella Foresta di Selkirk per unirsi all’esercito di Andrew de Moray, a Stirling. Moray aveva dato il via a un’altra sollevazione, e a Stirling le loro forze congiunte si prepararono a incontrare gli inglesi in battaglia.
L’11 settembre 1297 vide una decisiva vittoria per Wallace e gli scozzesi a Stirling Bridge. Nonostante fossero in ampia inferiorità numerica, le forze scozzesi guidate da Andrew de Moray (un importante nobile, in quanto primogenito)

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, e con Wallace come loro capitano, misero in rotta l’esercito inglese. L’esercito di professionisti del Conte del Surrey, forte di tremila cavalieri e 10 mila fanti, andò incontro al disastro quando attraversò il fiume da nord. Il ponte era troppo stretto perché molti soldati potessero attraversarlo assieme (probabilmente non più di tre uomini affiancati), così mentre gli inglesi attraversavano, gli scozzesi li attesero e li uccisero man mano che passavano.
I soldati inglesi iniziarono a ritirarsi mentre i loro compagni dalle retrovie spingevano in avanti, e sotto un peso eccessivo, il ponte crollò, facendone affogare molti. All’insaputa dell’esercito inglese caduto nel panico, parte delle forze scozzesi aveva guadato il fiume più a monte. Con l’esercito inglese diviso sulle due rive del fiume, le due forze scozzesi pressarono le due metà dell’esercito inglese verso il fiume. Fu una vittoria schiacciante e un’enorme iniezione di fiducia per l’esercito scozzese. Hugh Cressingham, il tesoriere di Edoardo in Scozia, venne ucciso nel corso della battaglia. Successivamente alla vittoria, Wallace venne nominato cavaliere e Guardiano di Scozia il 13 marzo 1298. Sfortunatamente, de Moray venne ferito gravemente nella battaglia e morì tre mesi dopo. La loro alleanza si era rivelata di successo, ma ora Wallace era da solo e con battaglie ancor più grandi da affrontare.
Un anno dopo, comunque, la situazione si rovesciò. Il 15 giugno 1298 gli inglesi avevano invaso la Scozia a Roxburgh. Saccheggiarono il Lothian e riconquistarono alcuni castelli, ma non riuscirono a far scendere in campo Wallace. Gli scozzesi avevano adottato una politica di terra bruciata e gli errori commessi da chi doveva provvedere ai rifornimenti lasciarono gli inglesi con scarso cibo e morale, ma la ricerca di Wallace da parte di Edoardo si sarebbe conclusa a Falkirk

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Wallace aveva posizionato i suoi lancieri in quattro schiltron – formazioni circolari a riccio, circondate da un muro difensivo di pali di legno. Gli inglesi ottennero un vantaggio, comunque, attaccando per primi con la cavalleria, e seminando la distruzione tra gli arcieri scozzesi. I cavalieri scozzesi fuggirono e gli uomini di Edoardo iniziarono ad attaccare gli schiltron. Non è chiaro se il fattore decisivo fu il lancio di dardi, frecce e pietre da parte della fanteria, o un attacco della cavalleria da dietro.
A ogni modo, comparirono presto dei varchi negli schiltron e gli inglesi sfruttarono questi per mettere a tacere la restante resistenza. Gli scozzesi persero molti uomini, ma Wallace riuscì a sfuggire, anche se il suo orgoglio e la reputazione militare ne vennero gravemente danneggiati. Per la fine di settembre 1298 Wallace aveva deciso di cedere il titolo di Guardiano a Robert Bruce, conte di Carrick, e a John Comyn di Badenoch, il fratellastro dell’ex sovrano John Balliol. Bruce si riconciliò con Edoardo nel 1302, mentre Wallace respinse queste mosse verso la pace. Egli spese un po‘ di tempo in Francia, in una presunta missione diplomatica.
Sir William riuscì a sfuggire alla cattura da parte degli inglesi fino al maggio 1305, quando Sir John de Menteith, un cavaliere scozzese leale a Edoardo I d’Inghilterra, lo catturò nei pressi di Glasgow. Dopo un processo sommario, le autorità inglesi lo giustiziarono atrocemente il 23 agosto 1305, a Smithfield (Londra), nella maniera tradizionale riservata ai traditori: egli venne impiccato e quindi squartato. La sua testa venne infilzata su un palo appuntito e posta sul London Bridge. Il governo inglese espose le sue membra a Newcastle, Berwick, Edimburgo e Perth (come si usava ai tempi: le varie parti del corpo del condannato a morte venivano esposte nella città natale (generalmente la testa) e nelle città principali).
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2009 Chicago Fire season

The 2009 Chicago Fire season was the club’s 14th year of existence, as well as their 12th season in Major League Soccer and 12th consecutive year in the top-flight of American soccer. It began with a 3-1 away win over FC Dallas on March 21, 2009 and ended with a loss on penalties to Real Salt Lake in the Eastern Conference Final on November 14, 2009.

As of July 17, 2009. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules

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Last updated: October 18, 2008 Source: Competitions

Last updated: October 22, 2009 Source: Major League Soccer Pld = Matches played; Pts = Points; W = Matches won

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; T = Matches tied; L = Matches lost; GF = Goals for; GA = Goals against; GD = Goal difference
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Avro 510

The Avro 510 was a two-seat racing seaplane designed by Avro to compete in the 1914 Circuit of Britain Race. It was a conventional two-bay biplane of greatly uneven span, equipped with two large central floats and two outriggers. The race was called off at the outbreak of the First World War, but the British Admiralty was aware of the type and ordered five examples Maje Spring Summer 2016, with modified floats and tail

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. In service, these proved completely unsuitable, and it was discovered that with a second person aboard, the aircraft could barely fly. In October 1915, the 510s in service were sent to Supermarine for modification and improvement, but by March the following year all were removed from service.

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a Most sources give the powerplant of the 510 as a Sunbeam Nubian juicy couture sale, an engine that would not yet exist until all the 510s had been withdrawn from service in 1916 bogner jacket. The Wolverhampton Museum of Industry website cites Eric Brew’s Sunbeam Aero Engines and identifies the 510’s engine as a Crusader.
b Climb to 1000 ft (305 m) 4.5 minutes.

Bell, Wisconsin

Bell is a town in Bayfield County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 263 at the 2010 census. The unincorporated community of Cornucopia is located within the town.
Wisconsin Highway 13 serves as a main arterial route in the community.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 60.5 square miles (156.6 km2), of which 59.7 square miles (154.6 km2) is land and 0.77 square miles (2.0 km2), or 1.25%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 230 people, 115 households, and 77 families residing in the town. The population density was 3.9 people per square mile (1.5/km²). There were 412 housing units at an average density of 6.9 per square mile (2.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 93.91% White, 4.35% Native American, and 1.74% from two or more races.
There were 115 households out of which 20.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11 Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.42.
In the town the population was spread out with 14.8% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24 Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 34 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online.8% from 45 to 64, and 22 rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females there were 105.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $29,688, and the median income for a family was $41,000. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $22,083 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,683. About 13.6% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 18.6% of those sixty five or over.