Saint-Pierre (Seychellen)

Saint-Pierre ist eine kleine Insel im Indischen Ozean, welche zu den sogenannten Outer Islands der Republik der Seychellen gehört. Sie liegt innerhalb der Farquhar-Gruppe und ist etwa 35 km westlich des Providence-Atolls gelegen. Bis Mahé, der Hauptinsel der Seychellen im Nordosten, sind es etwa 700 Kilometer, bis zum Aldabra-Atoll im Südwesten etwa 500 Kilometer.

Saint-Pierre ist eine angenähert runde Insel mit einer Länge von 1,6 km in Ost-West-Richtung sowie einer Breite von 1,4 km in Nord-Süd-Richtung und weist eine Fläche von 1,68 km² auf tenderizers in baking. Bei der Insel handelt es sich um ein gehobenes Atoll mit einer steil abfallenden Küste water flask, welche das Anlanden mit Booten erschwert. Saint-Pierre erreicht an der Kliffküste eine Höhe von bis zu 12 m über dem Meer, im Inselinneren hingegen liegt die Oberfläche etwa auf Meereshöhe.

Auf der heute unbewohnten Insel wurde von 1906 bis 1972 Guano intensiv abgebaut und dabei die einstige Vegetation, welche vornehmlich aus Pisonia-Bäumen (Pisonia grandis) bestand, weitgehend zerstört hydration running. Der Nordwesten der Insel ist von bis zu 12 m hohe Kasuarinen (Casuarina) bewachsen.

General Education (film)

General Education is a 2012 comedy film, directed by Tom Morris, starring Chris Sheffield, Maiara Walsh, Elaine Hendrix, Bobby Campo, Janeane Garofalo and Larry Miller and produced by Pelican House Productions. The film was shot in Chico and Gridley, California.

Levi Collins, (Chris Sheffield), a high school senior, has been forced all his life by his father Rich, (Larry Miller), to play tennis due to a strong devotion to a family tradition. Levi receives a letter saying he has received a full scholarship to go to college at Forest Wood and play tennis, which makes his father very proud. In addition, Levi gets another letter from Arizona State saying he has been accepted, but his father discards it, encouraging him to go to Forest Wood.

On the day before graduation, Levi learns that he has failed Science class water bottles to buy, which he refuses to tell his father about. After attempting to bribe his science teacher Ms. Bradford, (Elaine Hendrix) with two tickets to his sister’s mime show, he goes to the principal to seek help. Levi, with the help of his friend Charles, (Skylan Brooks), manages to trick the principal into letting him take part in the graduation ceremony so as to not anger his father, but his counselor Bebe, (Mercedes Masöhn), that because of his failing science, he cannot officially graduate. Levi then enrolls himself in a 10-day summer school program taught by his science teacher, and in doing so, has to cancel his trip to Mexico with his friends (Sean Przano & Harvey Guillen). Levi meets Katie, (Maiara Walsh), who says she is staying with her mother who is making her take the course. Samuel Goldstein, (Federico Dordei), tries to interfere, but after Levi knocks him out with a tetherball, he asks Katie out, and they go to see his sister’s show. Levi picks her up and it is revealed that Katie’s mother is Ms. Bradford.

Levi covers up the summer school by telling his parents he has been taking a summer job at the local rice cake factory, which his father does not take seriously. Levi is continually forced by his father to keep up with tennis, even at the risk of missing the class. Ms. Bradford informs him that the final project is due soon and Levi doesn’t have a topic. His friend Shady Nick, (Seth Cassel), after showing him a video online, convinces Levi to create a project around turning his Mercedes into an alternative fuel car, which runs on vegetable oil. Nick’s mechanic friend Sampson, (Sam Ayers), believes it may work. The three of them work on the car, and convert it to run on vegetable oil using a special filter. They try it, and find that the project is a success, and Levi has his project. But after being forced by his father to practice for the upcoming Chico Open match against Samuel, Levi misses another day of school and is dropped from the class.

After another run in with Samuel, who is revealed to have stolen Levi’s car, he gets angry and smashes what he thinks is Samuel’s truck, but it is revealed to be Officer Bob’s truck, and Levi ends up in jail glass from bottle. His mom, (Janeane Garofalo), comes to get him and he explains the circumstances of his summer, and how he is not interested in tennis. His mother explains that the tradition in his family was started when his great-grandfather decided he wanted to leave his family’s history of farming behind to pursue his dream, and tells Levi he should do the same. So with the help of Charles, Katie, and Nick, they retrieve Levi’s car, and try to help him get his car back to school to show Ms. Bradford before school ends. Levi confronts his father about his wish to not play tennis and asks for his help, but he refuses.

Levi leaves, arrives at school and asks Ms. Bradford to look at his project, and after his father, who has had a change of heart, talks to her she agrees to look at the car. He shows her the vegetable oil experiment, and Levi manages to pass the class. He finally decides to leave tennis behind and go to Arizona State, and Katie says she will be staying the whole summer.

The film gained unfavorable reviews, especially from Rotten Tomatoes, where it scored a 0% rating based on 14 reviews. However, 69% of audiences liked the film with an average rating of 3.9/5. On Metacritic, the film received a rating of 20/100 from 5 critics.

Slant Magazine’s Nick Schager only gave the film half a star, stating it is „too derivative to be amusing and too earnest to be parodic“ and that the script has a „flatness that turns every plot point into a lesson in illogicality“

Tom Morris won the Breakthrough FilmMaker Award at the 2012 Newport Beach Film Festival

Coventry United F.C.

Coventry United Football Club is an English association football club based in Coventry in the West Midlands. The team competes in the Midland League Premier Division (the 9th highest tier in English football) after being promoted at the end of the 2015–16 season using meat tenderizer on steak.

The club was founded in 2013 by chairman Jason Kay along with three co-chairmen Jason Timms, Marcus Green and Pete Schofield and Club secretary Graham Wood in reaction to Coventry City moving from the Ricoh Arena to Northampton to play at Sixfields Stadium football classic shirts. Edwin Greaves had been in charge at the club since its formation until Spring 2016, when he was replaced by current manager Terry Anderson.

On 4 July 2015, the club announced the takeover of Coventry City Ladies F.C, rebranding the ladies side Coventry United Ladies F.C.

Coventry United’s home kit is made up from the city’s civic colours. The shirt is a dark red Adidas designed top that prominently features the logo of the current club sponsors „Graham The Plumbers‘ Merchant“ on the front. The shorts and socks are the same shade of dark green. The club’s away strip is a full white strip which is also sponsored by Graham The Plumbers‘ Merchant.

At the start of the 2014–15 season running belt for gels, Coventry unveiled their third kit for the season which is a full sky blue strip that references local professional club Coventry City.

On 4 July 2015, Coventry City Ladies F sweater de piller.C. announced that they will merge with Coventry United and be rebranded as Coventry United Ladies F.C. from the beginning of the 2015–16 Women’s Premier League season.

The move means that the team will play in Coventry United Men’s team colours, also the cities civic colours, red and green rather than Coventry City’s sky blue. They will also continue playing home games at The Bedworth Oval. The clubs were keen to point out that the ladies team will still be independently run, with its own board of directors.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.


Marion Davies

Marion Davies (født 3. januar 1897 i Brooklyn, New York, død 22. september 1961) var en amerikansk filmskuespillerinne.

Davies er best husket for sitt forhold til avismagnaten William Randolph Hearst, samt hennes høyprofilerte sosiale liv som ofte overskygget hennes profesjonelle skuespiller-karriere. Hun var den yngste av fem barn til Bernard J. Douras (1857–1935), en advokat og dommer i New York City, og hans kone Rose Reilly (1867 -?). Hennes bror Charles druknet i en alder av 15 år i 1906. Davies ble utdannet i et kloster.

Etter å ha gjort sin debut på teater på slutten av 1916. Hun dukket opp i hennes første spillefilm i 1917 med Runaway Romany. Året etter at hun spilte i tre filmer, The Burden of Proof, Beatrice Fairfax og Cecilia of Pink Roses hydration running belts. Hun spilte hovedsakelig lett komiske roller, hun ble raskt en stor film personlighet,og tjente en liten formue som gjorde at hun kunne yte finansiell bistand til hennes familie og venner.

I løpet av de neste 10 årene opptrådte hun i 29 filmer, i gjennomsnitt nesten tre filmer i året. På midten av 1920-tallet, derimot, ble hennes karriere ofte overskygget av hennes forhold med den gifte Hearst og deres fabelaktige sosiale liv i Santa Monica. Både Davies og hennes fremtidige ektemann Charlie Chaplin var begge tilstede på Hearsts yacht ved det mystiske dødsfallet til Thomas Harper Ince som etter sigende skal ha døde av hjerte-problemer. Charlie Chaplin skal angivelig ha forsøkt å få Davies til å forlate Hearst til fordel for ham selv. Chaplin og Davies giftet seg i 1924. På denne tiden skal Chaplin også ha hatt et forhold med en mindreårig kvinne.

Ifølge hennes egne dagbøker how to soften hard meat, hadde hun møtt Hearst lenge før hun begynte å jobbe med filmer. Gjennom hennes siste år, var Davies ofte involvert i mye frivillig arbeid. I 1952 donerte hun $ 1,900,000 for å etablere klinikken The Mattel Children’s Hospital. Hun bekjempet en rekke barnesykdommer gjennom Marion Davies Foundation.

Hun fikk et mindre slag i 1956, og ble senere diagnostisert med kreft i kjeven. Hun hadde en operasjon som virket til å være vellykket. Kort tid etter operasjonen falt Davies og brakk det ene beinet. Siste gang Davies ble sett av den amerikanske offentligheten var 10. januar 1960, på en NBC TV-spesial kalt Hedda Hopper’s Hollywood. Davies døde av kreft 22. september 1961 i Hollywood, California.

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2016 Copa Perú

The 2016 Peru Cup season (Spanish: Copa Perú 2016), the largest amateur tournament of Peruvian football, started in February.

This edition has featured a change, with the elimination of the Regional Stage and the inclusion of participants from all the Regions of Peru in the National Stage. Under the new format, the tournament has four stages. The first three stages are played as mini-league round-robin tournaments, and the fourth stage is played under POT System intellectual property of the MatchVision company.

The 2016 Peru Cup started with the District Stage (Spanish: Etapa Distrital) in February. The next stage was the Provincial Stage (Spanish: Etapa Provincial) which started in June. The tournament continued with the Departmental Stage (Spanish: Etapa Departamental) in July. The National Stage (Spanish: Etapa Nacional) starts in September. The winner of the National Stage will be promoted to the First Division and the runner-up will be promoted to the Second Division.

Departmental Stage: 2016 Ligas Departamentales del Peru and 2016 Ligas Superiores del Peru

The following list shows the teams that qualified for the National Stage.

In 2016 the National Stage has grown to 50 teams, and the new National Stage, designed by MatchVision, is played under Regional using the POT System, with all the Regions of Peru will have representated. The National Stage starts in the first week of September.

This phase features the 50 teams that qualified from the Departmental Stage. Each team plays 3 games at home and 3 games away, for a total of 6 games against 3 different geographical rivals. The departmental stage winners only play against departmental runner-ups, and vice versa. All the teams are positioned in one general table. After 6 matches, the team in places 1 to 8 are qualified directly to the Round of 16, while the teams in places 9 to 24 will play the Repechage phase. The teams in places 25 to 50 are eliminated.

The winner of the National Stage will be promoted to the 2017 Torneo Descentralizado and the runner-up of the National Stage will be promoted to the 2017 Peruvian Segunda División.

The ranking of teams in the Unique Table is based on the following criteria:
 1. Number of Points
&nbsp running belts reviews;2. Number of Relative Points, which are calculated by multiplying the points obtained against each rival with the total points obtained by this rival.
 3. Goal difference
 4. Number of goals scored
 5. Better performance in away matches based on the following criteria:
        1. Number of Away Points
        2. Number of Away Relative Points
        3 running water bottle waist pack. Goal Difference in away games
        4. Number of goals scored in away games
 6. Number of First-Half points: considering the half-time results as the final results
 6. Drawing of lots

Updated to games played on 2016.
Rules for classification: 1) points; 2) goal difference; 3) number of goals scored; 4) head-to-head record; 5) drawing of lots
(C) = Champion; (R) = Relegated; (P) = Promoted; (E) = Eliminated; (O) = Play-off winner; (A) = Advances to a further round.
Only applicable when the season is not finished:
(Q) = Qualified to the phase of tournament indicated; (TQ) = Qualified to tournament design youth football uniforms, but not yet to the particular phase indicated; (RQ) = Qualified to the relegation tournament indicated; (DQ) = Disqualified from tournament.

The final group stage, colloquially known as La Finalísima, will be played by the four semifinalist at the Estadio Nacional in Lima. The team with the most points will be declared the winner and be promoted to the 2017 Torneo Descentralizado. The runner-up will be promoted to the 2017 Peruvian Segunda División. The draw for this stage of the tournament took place 30 November 2016 at the Peruvian Football Federation’s headquarters.

Chen Xilian

Chen Xilian (pronounced [ʈʂʰə̌n ɕíljɛ̌n]; 4 January 1915 – 10 June 1999) was a general of People’s Liberation Army of China and a member of the Central Committee Politburo.

Chen was born in Hong’an County, Hubei Province of China in 1915. He joined his local Chinese Red Army guerrilla unit in 1929, and the Communist Youth League a year later. He was an army general from 1955 and a year later an Alternate Member of the 8th Central Committee (CC). Chen was a member of the CPC Politburo through three party congresses (1969–80), but fell afoul of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms and was demoted with three colleagues (Wu De, Ji Dengkui and Wang Dongxing) dubbed the “Small Gang of Four” to mere CC status in February 1980. Chen was assigned to the Standing Committee of the party Central Advisory Committee in September 1982.

In the early 1930s, Chen Xilian served in the 4th Front Army as a political instructor and communications man, moving up the ranks to Regiment political commissar in 1934. His unit, which was led by Zhang Guotao, Xu Xiangqian and Li Xiannian, included such future leaders as Qin Jiwei. They fought Sichuan warlords on the western leg of the Long March. At the close of the Long March, Chen – like his colleagues Xu Shiyou and Yu Qiuli – would find himself on the wrong side of the Mao Zedong-Zhang Guotao dispute, and badly battered by Muslim cavalry and warlord armies. After the fighting, Chen emerged as a division commander and reached Yan’an in late 1935. He was assigned to the 129th Division of Eighth Route Army, which later became the core of the 2nd Field Army of Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping.

On October 19, 1937 he led the 769th Regiment, First Column, against Japanese units defending Yangmingbao airport, destroying 24 planes, and killing more than 100 Japanese soldiers, which alleviated the air threat on the Xikou Front. Chen at this time served under Xu Xiangqian with future generals Xu Shiyou, Xu Haidong and Han Xianchu.

In the Summer of 1940, Chen’s unit participated in the Hundred Regiments Campaign near Taiyuan, and by September had succeeded the reassigned Xu Shiyou as 385th Brigade Commander; his political commissar at the time was future Public Security Minister Xie Fuzhi.

After a brief stint at the Central Party School in Yan’an (in 1943, likely his only formal education), Chen in September 1945 was commander of the Second Military Subdistrict in Southern Hebei. His 385th Brigade combined with local unites to create the 7th Brigade, which eventually became the 3rd Column of the Central Plains Field Army. His Deputy Commander, Zeng Shaoshan, and other key officers remained with Chen through the Huai-Hai and Crossing the Yangtze campaigns, and for many years thereafter.

In the Spring of 1949, after the fall of Nanjing, Chen’s 3rd Army moved into Zhejiang, and saw action at Hangzhou and Shanghai. His unit remained in place while his co-commanders, Chen Geng and Yang Yong, embarked on the South-west Campaign. As the Civil War wound down, Chen was left in command of a key region of Eastern China. Among his 2nd Field Army subordinates to later rise in power were future politburo members Xie Fuzhi, Li Desheng and Liu Huaqing.

In 1950, he was appointed Party First Secretary and Mayor of Chongqing, Sichuan. He was also the commander of PLA’s at East Sichuan region and a member of the Southwest Military Administrative Committee, under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, He Long and Liu Bocheng. He was then assigned as commander of the entire PLA Artillery Corps and president of the Artillery Academy.

In 1955, Chen was assigned the rank of general, and the following year made an Alternate Member of the CPC Central Committee. In 1958, the PLA opened up a massive and sustained artillery barrage against the Nationalist-held island of Quemoy (Jinmen). General Chen was likely in direct command of the failed 400-piece cannonade stainless steel water jug.

The purge of Peng Dehuai in 1959 brought down two of his key allies as well: Chief-of-Staff Huang Kecheng and Shenyang MR Commander Deng Hua. Chen Xilian was sent to Manchuria to take over from General Deng in one of the most sensitive regions of the Sino-Soviet border. He served in the post until 1973; his deputy was his old comrade in arms, Zeng Shaoshan.

Chen inherited a region in the grip of starvation, due to the policy mismanagement of the Great Leap Forward. In mid-1963 poland football shirt, Chen was promoted to CCP Secretary for the CC Northeast Central Party Bureau, where he worked closely with Song Renqiong. In 1965, Chen was made a member of the National Defense Council, and remained in that post until the organization was abolished in 1975.

Chen was attacked by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution as one who resisted radicalization. Throughout 1967, he sought to survive by minimally acquiescing to Red Guard demands, placing PLA officers in sensitive positions such as provincial Revolutionary Committees and rapidly promoting inexperienced radicals to high positions. It appears that Chen directed radical hostility toward Song and the regional party apparatus. It is less clear if he deliberately launched the March 1969 border incident with the Soviet Union.

Already a powerful figure in regional military affairs, Chen’s career reached its pinnacle during the Cultural Revolution. He was elevated to the Politburo at the 1969 9th National Party Congress and, as the PLA took over regional administration, became CCP 1st Secretary of Liaoning Province (1971–74).

In 1971, Chen was the first MR commander to denounce Lin Biao following his alleged coup d’état attempt and subsequent death. The Writing Group of Liaoning Provincial Party Committee, an origin under General Chen’s direct and complete control, launched an attack on Lin in the November 1971 issue of „Red Flag“ (Hongqi).

After being reelected to the politburo in 1973, Chen traded his Northeast power base for the leadership of the Beijing Military Region command in January 1974 and remained in that post until January 1980, when he was replaced by Qin Jiwei. He was named Vice Premier in the mid-1970s, a title he retained until his downfall in 1980.

In 1976, following the death of Zhou Enlai and subsequent purge of Deng Xiaoping, General Chen is thought to have briefly acted as Defense Minister and Military Affairs Commission secretary-general, in place of Marshall Ye Jianying. While some sources give credit to Chen for managing the arrest of the Gang of Four in the September coup d’état, others give full credit to Wang Dongxing.

Deng Xiaoping’s 1977 re-emergence led to the exoneration of the very people who had facilitated Chen Xilian’s rapid rise in power, by being victims of Mao’s purges. Peng Dehuai, Huang Kecheng, Deng Hua and Song Renqiong, along with scores of others, were rehabilitated in 1977-79, at the expense of Chen’s power. He was purged in February 1980 along with three other beneficiaries of the Cultural Revolution: Wu De, Ji Dengkui and Wang Dongxing. Together they were labelled the „Little Gang of Four“.

Malek Aït-Alia

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Malek Aït-Alia est un footballeur international algérien, né le à Mulhouse. Il possède également la nationalité française. Il évolue au poste de défenseur ou de milieu défensif de la fin des années 1990 à la fin des années 2000.

Formé au FC Mulhouse, il joue ensuite notamment au Stade de Reims, au RC Paris, au Clermont Foot, au Stade lavallois, au Montpellier HSC avant de terminer sa carrière à l’Amiens SC.

Il compte deux sélections en équipe d’Algérie (entre 2003-2004).

Le 15 mai 2008 healthy water bottle, il signe un contrat de deux ans avec le club d’Amiens SC.

Avec seulement quatre matchs en Ligue 2 avec Amiens durant la saison 2008/2009, l’ex-international algérien (2 sélections) Malek Aït-Alia met un terme à sa carrière de footballeur professionnel.

Le tableau ci-dessous retrace le parcours de Malek Aït-Alia durant sa carrière professionnelle.

Catharsis (groupe français)

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Consultez la liste des tâches à accomplir en page de discussion.

Catharsis est un groupe de rock psychédélique progressif français des années 1970.

Celle-ci couvre les années 1971 à 1974 water bottle aluminum, ce qui correspond à peu près à la publication des trois premiers albums.

La musique de Catharsis est fortement influencée par celle de la période post-psychédélique de Pink Floyd, dont l’album Ummagumma est caractéristique.

Cette influence est en particulier reconnaissable dans l’album Les Chevrons où se succèdent longues plages musicales partant en crescendo puis retombant de manière soudaine. Le style est toutefois plus enjoué et plus acoustique, avec une prédominance des claviers, percussions et des voix dont celle de Charlotte, particulièrement remarquable dans le titre Masq.

C’est une musique essentiellement instrumentale. Sur une base de claviers, percussions viennent s’ajouter les voix ainsi que de nombreux et divers instruments de toutes origines, parfois assez surprenants, tels que la crécelle ou encore la scie musicale. La voix y est traitée de manière instrumentale, sous une forme généralement chorale running water backpacks. La plupart du temps les chants ne comportent aucun texte, quand celui-ci ne se réduit à un seul mot, tel dans le titre Chelum de l’album Les Chevrons.

Tout comme pour Pink Floyd, la musique de Catharsis a souvent, durant ces mêmes années, servi de base à des émissions ou reportages de télévision et radio française ; en particulier, le titre Masq fut l’indicatif de l’émission « c’est ma planète » sur Europe 1.

Celle-ci couvre les années de 1975 à 1977, ce qui correspond à peu près à la publication des trois derniers albums. La formation est réduite à ses quatre principaux membres et les influences jazz l’emportent sur les tendances post-psychédéliques de la première période.

Membres principaux :

Autres membres :

Quelques 45 tours et 6 albums. De nombreuses reprises d’un album à l’autre dans les premières années.

De Bernard Verley accompagné par Catharsis

De Élisabeth Meaulne et Bernard Verley accompagnés par Catharsis

De Élisabeth Meaulne et Bernard Verley accompagnés par Catharsis

Princess Royal (sloop)

Princess Royal was a British merchant ship that sailed on fur trading ventures in the late 1780s, and was captured at Nootka Sound by Esteban José Martínez of Spain during the Nootka Crisis of 1789. Called Princesa Real while under the Spanish Navy, the vessel was one of the important issues of negotiation during the first Nootka Convention and the difficulties in carrying out the agreements. The vessel also played an important role in both British and Spanish exploration of the Pacific Northwest and the Hawaiian Islands. In 1790, while under Spanish control, Princesa Real carried out the first detailed examination of the Strait of Juan de Fuca by non-indigenous peoples, finding, among other places, the San Juan Islands, Haro Strait (the entrance to the Strait of Georgia), Esquimalt Harbour near present-day Victoria, British Columbia, and Admiralty Inlet (the entrance to Puget Sound).

Lloyd’s Register listed Princess Royal in 1789 as being a sloop of 60 tons (bm), surveyed in Leith, Scotland in 1778 and resurveyed in 1786; Class A1, Copper sheathed, single deck with beams; draft of 8 feet (2.4 m) when laden; owned by Etches & Co.

From 1786 to 1788 Princess Royal, under Charles Duncan, accompanied the much larger Prince of Wales, under James Colnett, on an expedition to acquire sea otter furs in the Pacific Northwest and sell them in China. The ships were owned by Richard Cadman Etches and Company, also known as King George’s Sound Company. The company was exploring the possibilities of taking furs collected in the Pacific Northwest to China, a venture shown to be potentially profitable by James Cook.

The two ships left England on 23 September 1786, rounded Cape Horn, and reached the Pacific Northwest late in the summer of 1787. After trading for furs with the indigenous peoples in the vicinity of the Queen Charlotte Islands, Aristazabal Island, and Banks Island, both ships sailed to the Hawaiian Islands where they spent the winter. While on the coast of present-day British Columbia they had a series of first contact encounters with some of the Kitkatla Tsimshian. In Hawaii Princess Royal and Prince of Wales were involved in several violent conflicts with the islanders; one conflict at Waimea Bay, resulted in the death of between five and fourteen Hawaiians.

During the summer of 1788 the two returned to the Pacific Northwest to acquire more furs, this time operating separately. Charles Duncan sailed Princess Royal first to Nootka Sound, then to the Queen Charlotte Islands. He then took the ship across Hecate Strait to conduct fur trading among the islands and inlets north of Princess Royal Island, passing through Principe Channel and into Douglas Channel. Although today the name „Princess Royal“ applies to a single island, Duncan called the entire archipelago the Princess Royal’s Islands. It included what is today called Banks Island, Pitt Island, Gil Island, Campania Island, Gribbell Island, Hawkesbury Island, and the Estevan Group, among others. In late June, 1788, Duncan returned to the Queen Charlotte Islands, then proceeded south. He took Princess Royal into the uncharted waters of Milbanke Sound and spent a few days trading with the Heiltsuk. Near Nootka Sound he encountered John Meares, from whom he learned that Colnett and Prince of Wales had not arrived at Nootka. Therefore, Duncan did not stop at Nootka Sound but instead took Princess Royal south, trading in the vicinity of Clayoquot Sound and near the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. On 17 August 1788, Duncan left the Northwest, sailing Princess Royal back to the Hawaiian Islands, where Prince of Wales and Princess Royal were reunited. The two then sailed to China, arriving in late November, 1788. There they sold the fur skins acquired in the Pacific Northwest. Prince of Wales returned to England via the Cape of Good Hope while Princess Royal remained in the Pacific for another fur trading season. James Colnett also remained, and was given command of Argonaut for another year of fur trading in the Pacific. Thomas Hudson was given command of Princess Royal.

While Duncan and Colnett were not the first Europeans to meet the Haida, their 1787 and 1788 accounts provide the first significant written description of them. There were three main encounters, including two at Rose Harbour in Houston Stewart Channel and one at Juan Perez Sound. The British described „Coyah“ (Xō’ya, head of the Qai’dju qē’gawa-i Raven lineage) as the principal chief of Houston Stewart Channel and the adjacent waters. In July 1788 both British ships witnessed and became involved in a conflict between two groups of Haida at Juan Perez Sound — a group from the south led by Xō’ya and „Yuka“, and a group from the north called „Sangaskilah“ by the British water bottle waist holder.

In the spring of 1789 Princess Royal, under Thomas Hudson, along with Iphigenia (William Douglas), Argonaut (James Colnett), and North West America (Robert Funter), all British fur trading vessels, arrived at Nootka Sound. Two American fur trading ships were already anchored in the sound, one of which was Columbia Rediviva, and more arrived later, including Lady Washington, under Robert Gray. Esteban José Martínez, in command of the new Spanish post at Nootka, asserted Spanish sovereignty. After a complicated series of events, Martínez ended up with three captured ships and their crews, Princess Royal among them bottled water glass. Hudson had taken Princess Royal into Nootka Sound earlier and had been allowed to leave on the condition he proceed to China. Instead, he collected more furs from the region and returned to Nootka Sound, expecting Martínez would no longer be there. Hudson did not intend to enter the sound but Princess Royal was becalmed on an incoming tide. A Spanish longboat captured the ship and towed it in. During the capture of Princess Royal the Nuu-chah-nulth („Nootka“) Chief Callicum, the son of Chief Maquinna, was shot and killed.

On 21 June 1789, Martínez dispatched José María Narváez in the captured North West America, renamed Santa Gertrudis la Magna, to explore inlets to the south of Nootka Sound. By early July Narváez returned to Nootka, having sailed about 65 miles (105 km) into the Strait of Juan de Fuca, demonstrating that it was a very large inlet. After hearing Narváez’s report, Martínez felt that the Strait of Juan de Fuca was the entrance of the legendary Northwest Passage and of extreme strategic importance. Therefore, he placed Gonzalo López de Haro and Narváez in command of San Carlos and the captured Princess Royal, renamed Princesa Real, and sent them to the Spanish naval base at San Blas with news about the strait. In October, Martínez completely evacuated Nootka Sound and returned to San Blas himself, with his prisoners and captured ships.

The events at Nootka Sound during the summer of 1789 escalated into a major international crisis, called the Nootka Crisis, which brought Britain and Spain to the brink of war. Peace was maintained through a series of agreements called the Nootka Conventions. It took several years for the terms to be fully agreed upon and carried out. Among other things, Spain agreed to restore the captured ships to their owners and pay them an indemnity.

In late 1789, a Spanish force under Francisco de Eliza was sent to reoccupy Nootka Sound. The fleet included the captured Princesa Real, under the command of Manuel Quimper. Eliza arrived at Nootka on 4 April 1790, and found no ships present. Under the terms of the first Nootka Convention, Princess Royal was to be returned to the British at Nootka Sound, but as the port was deserted Eliza decided to make use of the vessel while waiting. He dispatched Princesa Real under Quimper, with López de Haro and Juan Carrasco as pilots, to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca more fully.

On the way Quimper stopped at Clayoquot Sound and met Wickaninnish and, a day later, Maquinna, whose son had been killed on board Princess Royal the previous year. Quimper and Maquinna were able to begin the process of reconcillation between the Spanish and the Nuu-chah-nulth.

In the summer of 1790 bottle holder for running, Quimper, Haro, and Carrasco explored the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Princesa Real, carefully charting harbors and performing acts of possession. Quimper made maps of Neah Bay (called Bahía de Núñez Gaona) and Esquimalt Harbour (Puerto de Córdova). On 5 July 1790, Carrasco sighted Admiralty Inlet, the entrance to Puget Sound. Thinking it likely to be a bay he named it Ensenada de Caamaño, after Jacinto Caamaño.

Haro Strait (Canal de López de Haro) and Rosario Strait (Boca de Fidalgo), both of which lead to the Strait of Georgia, were also sighted during the voyage, in addition to Deception Pass (Boca de Flon), Mount Baker (La Gran Montana Carmelo), Port Discovery (Puerto de Quadra), Sooke Basin (Puerta de Revilla Gigedo), Dungeness Spit, the San Juan Islands, Whidbey Island, Fidalgo Island, and others.

Quimper realized that Haro Strait was a major channel worth exploring, but did not have the time. His orders were to return to Nootka by 15 August so that Princesa Real could be returned to the British. Quimper got the ship within sight of Nootka Sound by 10 August, but due to contrary winds and fog he could not enter, despite repeated attempts. Instead, he sailed Princesa Real south to Monterey, California, arriving on 1 September 1790. By November the vessel was back at San Blas.

In 1791 Quimper took Princesa Real on another attempt to return it to the British. He sailed the vessel from San Blas to the Philippines, stopping at Hawaii on the way. Another Spanish captain would take the ship from the Philippines to China, as the Spanish and British governments had agreed that the ship would be returned to its owners in Macau. It turned out that James Colnett arrived in Hawaii in March 1791, just as Quimper was arriving. The two met. Colnett demanded that Princess Royal be turned over at once, while Quimper explained his orders were to take it to the Philippines. Colnett prepared to seize the ship by force buy bpa free water bottles. The quarrel was calmed by John Kendrick, Jr., a former fur trader who had entered Spanish service and was on board Princess Royal. Quimper slipped away at a convenient time and sailed to Manila, arriving in June. By the end of the year Princess Royal had been taken to Macau, but the ship was in such poor condition upon arrival that the British agents refused to accept it. Eventually they agreed to accept a small payment in cash instead.

Soon afterwards a hurricane hit Macao and badly damaged Princess Royal. She was later sold for salvage.

John T. Browne

John Thomas Browne (1845–1941) was an Irish-born merchant and politician. He served on the Houston City Council, served two terms as Mayor of Houston, and served three terms in the Texas House of Representatives.

John Thomas Browne was born March 23, 1845 in Ballylanders, County Limerick, Ireland to Michael and Winifred (Hennessy) Browne. His family emigrated to the United States in October 1851. Not long after arriving in New Orleans, his father died. In 1852, Winifred relocated with her five children to Houston, Texas to be closer to family of her mother. Winifred’s Irish uncle, Patrick Hayes, was an herbal medicine doctor and farmer in Madison County, Texas water flask bottle.

Browne spent much of the 1850s on Spann Plantation in Washington County, Texas at the behest of Father Gunnard, where he also received an education. At age fourteen in 1859, he left the plantation, and found work hauling bricks in Madison County, Texas. He returned to Houston to first work as a baggage hauler, then performed messenger duties for Commercial and Southwestern Express Company before settling in at the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. The 1860 Census listed John residing with his mother in Houston’s Fourth Ward.

Correction: The tombstone of Mayor John T. Browne in the City of Houston actually states that he served in Company A, 36 Texas Cavalry. Family history passed down that he was seriously wounded in a major battle of the Civil War, but recovered fully.[citation needed] Browne joined the Confederacy, officially serving in Company B of the Second Texas Infantry. He served in Houston, detached from his unit, maintaining employment with the Houston and Texas Central Railroad, but in a new capacity as a fireman. He was briefly dispatched to the defense of Galveston, Texas. He was officially released from military duty in Houston on June 27, 1865.

Browne returned to messenger service in Houston after the Civil War. He worked for Adams Express Company, then for Southern Express Company. He transitioned into the grocery business first as a bookkeeper and clerk for H.P. Levy

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Browne married Mary Jane „Mollie“ Bergin on September 13, 1871. They were the first marriage to be recorded at . In 1872, Browne and Charles Bollfrass started a business as wholesale and retail grocers with $500 in capital. By the early 1890s, this grocery was amassing about $340,000 in annual sales.

He was a member of the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Knights of Columbus.

Browne was elected to Houston City Council, representing the Fifth Ward while chairing the Finance Committee in 1887. He ran for Mayor of Houston in 1892. He won in a landslide: 3900 to 600. During his time as mayor he lived in the Fifth Ward.

Browne’s first term as Mayor of Houston began the same year as the Panic of 1893. He had campaigned on a platform of balancing the budget. The City of Houston ran budget deficits during Browne’s first term, but these deficits were proportionately lower than those in previous years. Browne had been an advocate for lowering municipal utility bills through municipal ownership of the utilities. However, estimates for the City of Houston to build its own waterworks and electrical power plant had gone up to a range $500,000 to $900,000. Browne abandoned this option while favoring a policy of dedicating all capital spending on street paving and sewerage. The Browne administration also hired a city planning expert to study demands based hypothetically on a population of 75,000.

Mayor Browne proposed converting the Houston Volunteer Firefighters to a professional department under municipal management. The City of Houston would need to buy existing equipment and horses from the volunteer department, but could lease firehouses and would not be required to buy them. Houston City Council drafted an ordinance and passed it.

In April 1895, the Texas Supreme Court ruling in Higgins v. Bordages, „held that special assessment tax liens were unenforceable against urban homesteads.“ The City of Houston imposed special tax levies for road and sewerage projects on owners of property abutting the sections of street being improved. The ruling effectively removed the only tool the city had for enforcing payment of the special assessments by homeowners. Road construction contractors stopped all work because they feared the city would not pay them. Many homeowners stopped paying their assessment bills.

To meet this immediate revenue crisis, the Browne administration devised a plan to issue $500,000 in municipal bonds to be sold over a three to four-year period. The Labor Council opposed the bonding measure, and organized to defeat the measure when the referendum made it to the ballot school team uniforms. The City of Houston would need to find another way to compensate for $300,000 in uncollected taxes.

Browne represented Houston in the Texas House of Representatives from 1897 to 1899, and again in 1907.

Browne died August 19, 1941 died of pneumonia in Houston. He was buried at Glenwood Cemetery in Houston. He was survived by six children and thirty-eight grand children.

In 1979 his former residence in the Fifth Ward was used by an Italian American-owned grocery, Orlando’s Grocery.