Kokichi Nishimura

Kōkichi Nishimura (西村幸吉, Nishimura Kōkichi, December 8, 1919 – October 2015) was a Japanese soldier and businessman who devoted his post-retirement years to traveling to Papua New Guinea to recover the remains of his former comrades and other Japanese soldiers who died during the Second World War. His life was described in the 2008 book Kokoda Bone Man by Australian journalist Charles Happell.

Nishimura grew up in Kōchi Prefecture in Shikoku. He had three siblings, and their father became ill and died when he was nine, and Nishimura worked to help support his family. When he was 11 the family moved to Ota-ku, Tokyo and he worked in a factory by day while studying at a technical school by night. At 15 he became a fitter and machinist in a factory, and began to build a reputation as a trouble-shooter. He returned to Kochi City for his military medical examination in 1940 and was conscripted the following year.

Nishimura was assigned to the 3rd platoon of the 5th company of the 144th Regiment of the South Seas Detachment (南海支隊, nankai shitai) under Major General Tomitarō Horii. After six months of difficult training which included severe beatings from officers, he and his unit shipped out of Kochi on September 22, 1941 on the Yokohama Maru. After meeting no resistance from the Americans on Guam, and relatively light resistance from the Australians on New Britain, Nishimura’s unit was deployed to New Guinea.

The Yokohama Maru was sunk by air attack football style shirt, and Nishimura’s unit took part in the thrust towards Port Moresby and fought on the Kokoda Track. After surviving being shot three times Nishimura was the only man of his 56-member platoon to survive the Battle of Brigade Hill, referred to by the Japanese as the Battle of Efogi.

After an extremely difficult retreat to the north coast of New Guinea, Nishimura was part of the besieged Japanese forces in Girua. The starving garrisons resorted to cannibalism of dead Allied soldiers and Papuans, and sometimes their own dead, which they referred to as „white pork“ and „black pork“. Nishimura did also.

In late 1942 he was made a platoon leader, and promoted to Lance-corporal. Evacuated from New Guinea to the Japanese stronghold of Rabaul in New Britain, he weighed 28 kilograms. After recuperating, he left on the Kozan Maru, which was sunk by an American submarine just off Taiwan. He was injured and once again hospitalized. In October 1943 he was sent to Burma, where the 5th company fought against the British army. He was again wounded and later struck down with malaria, and in 1944 he was sent to Singapore on the way back to Japan. His ship was damaged and put in at Taiwan for repairs, finally arriving back in Asakura in Kochi on January 8, 1945. Suffering from malaria once again, he was in a Kochi hospital when the war ended.

In late 1945 Nishimura married Yukiko, five years his junior. He was introduced to her on an omiai (arranged matchmaking date) organized by a classmate of his mother, on the condition that he would return to New Guinea to retrieve the bodies of his comrades. They had four children, three sons and a daughter.

The Military Police (MPs) were very active at this time and while he had not been involved in any war crimes, he didn’t trust the MPs, and avoided ports and railway stations due to their checkpoints. He worked various jobs around Shikoku and set up the Kochi Prefecture Cooperative to arrange jobs for unemployed veterans, widows and families who had lost men in the war. The postwar Occupation of Japan formally ended in 1952, and in 1955 he returned to Tokyo.

He founded the Nishimura Machinery Research Institute. He once again developed a reputation as a trouble-shooter and became friends with Akio Morita, the founder of Sony, who dealt with him directly. He also did work for Hitachi and developed a relationship with its president. He developed a rotary engine for motor vehicles but refused to sell it to Isuzu Motors when it became clear that it would sell the information to a foreign company.

His oldest and favorite son Akira died in a car accident in 1966 at age twenty. Over the years Nishimura visited the mostly empty graves of his dead comrades, and also visited their relatives. He gradually made plans to return to New Guinea to retrieve his friends‘ bodies. He was partly inspired in the 1970s by the return to Japan of the holdouts Shōichi Yokoi and Hiroo Onoda who had refused to accept word of Japan’s surrender, and the fact that the war was being forgotten by the Japanese public also spurred him on.

He was a member of the Kochi-New Guinea Association, a veterans group, which disapproved of his plans to recover bodies without going through official government channels. Sadashige Imanishi, a senior member of the association and a friend of Nishimura, had been on a 1969 recovery operation with the Ministry of Health and stayed in Popondetta. Dozens of bodies were recovered and cremated, and then placed in Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery in Tokyo.

In 1979 when he told his wife Yukiko and their children of his plans to return to New Guinea post-retirement, she argued against it, as did his two surviving sons. His daughter Sachiko supported him, and the family split down the middle. He gave his wife almost all of his property and never saw her nor their two sons again.

In 1979 Nishimura made a short trip to Papua New Guinea, which had only just become independent from Australia in 1975. He went again in 1980. He built a house in Popondetta to use as a base. He did some work helping to train locals as mechanics, got a ten million yen Japanese government grant to build a school, and got approval from PNG parliament members Michael Somare and Stephen Tago to look for Japanese remains.

A Japanese documentary about his work was aired in Japan, which resulted in some publicity and Yoshiki Miyagi of Shinko Trading providing and shipping earthmoving equipment to PNG free of charge, to be used to build roads. Nishimura started searching for bodies in earnest and found 120 at Girua beach, and 60 around the Buna and Gona areas.

Life in PNG was challenging, with his Popondetta house being burglarized a number of times, and he also had some issues with Hirozaku Yasuhara, a Japanese right wing group member who claimed to be from an organization called the „Remains Recovery Association“ (Ikotsu-shu-shudan). Yasuhara attempted to get control of the remains Nishimura had recovered, even having some of them stolen from Nishimura’s house. Yasuhara also sent a demand through the Japanese embassy to the government back in Tokyo demanding ¥64 million or they wouldn’t receive any remains. The money was not paid, leaving locals angry with Yasuhara.

Nishimura continued his recovery work and retrieved 30 to 35 bodies from around Waju. He was very disappointed to learn that the bodies at the Battle of Brigade Hill, site where his platoon was wiped out had later been burned, so he was unable to recover bodies, just a portion of the ash, which he returned to the Gokoku shinto shrine in Kōchi. Having been unable to retrieve his comrades, he organized a memorial monument to be built, which was completed on July 5, 1989. Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone had offered to provide some of his private funds to support Nishimura’s work, but he refused, worrying that if it became public knowledge it could cause a political scandal for Nakasone.

In 1989 He recovered some remains on South Girua, including a skull with four gold teeth. A bureaucrat from the Japanese Ministry of Health was there at the time, and he demanded that Nishimura turn over all the bones. Nishimura told the bureaucrat that he would not, and that he would have to kill Nishimura to get them. The bureaucrat backed down, and Nishimura gave him a few other bones to allow the bureaucrat to save face, but Nishimura kept the skull.

He continued his work through the 1990s, and helped a number of relatives of the war dead find or look for the places in PNG where they died. As the 50th anniversary of the end of the war approached the Japanese government wanted to collect the bones, and Nishimura was under the impression that they would have them tested and try to return them to their relatives. But the ministry of health did not do so steak marinade and tenderizer. Just like the remains recovered in 1969 on the trip Imanishi took part in, the remains of the approximately 200 bodies Nishimura had handed over were burned and placed in Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery, not tested or returned to relatives. This infuriated him.

In 1999 Nishimura was in Japan attempting to track down the family of the skull with four gold teeth. After fifty nights of travel and visiting sixty-seven family visits he finally located the correct family in Shōbara, Hiroshima. The deceased soldier was Takashi Yokokawa, but his family rejected the skull as the dead man had had a bad reputation in the family. Nishimura was incensed but the skull was accepted by Masaaki Izawa of the Japan War-Bereaved Families Association, who helped arrange and pay for a grave in Shōbara cemetery.

A newspaper article about the search for the relatives of the skull caught the attention of Miyo Inoue, a Communist Party member of the House of Councillors, who outlined Nishimura’s work in PNG both to recover remains, build memorials to the fallen, and help the local people. She asked the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare Chikara Sakaguchi why the Japanese government was not performing these tasks. Sakaguchi said „I can just bow my head for his efforts for his dead friends at the old age of seventy-nine.“

From 2000 to 2002 Nishimura worked for Bernard Narokobi, a PNG parliamentarian. This provided him with income and gave him the opportunity to travel many places with Narakobi, opening doors and helping him learn about the locations of more remains. PNG had passed a law that human remains in PNG were the property of PNG, and some remains were being used as tourist attractions by unscrupulous tourist operators. He arranged for Narokobi to travel to Japan to have Japanese officials request that the law be revoked. None of the Japanese officials raised the issue, providing another disappointment.

In 2005, no longer well enough to continue his work, Nishimura left PNG to return to Japan. He moved in with his daughter Sachiko, an elementary school teacher in Kazo, Saitama. He still suffered from malaria attacks, and estimated that he had spent around 400 million yen on his work recovering remains and tracking down relatives, which included building roads and bridges, as well as buying boats. While no longer able to do as much as he once could, he helped relatives of war dead with information about their relatives when he could.

Wayne Wetherall, a PNG campaign historian and the founder of the Kokoda Spirit trekking company, travelled to Japan in 2009 to meet Nishimura and ask him about Australian Army Captain Sam Templeton, who was missing in action, believed killed by the Japanese. Templeton’s son Reg wanted to know what happened to his father, as there had been various conflicting stories, none confirmed. Nishimura believed that he had buried Templeton. Nishimura said he had not been present at Templeton’s death, but that he had been captured and when interrogated before Lieutenant Colonel Hatsuo Tsukamoto, commander of the 144th regiment, lied and said „There are 80,000 Australian soldiers waiting for you in Moresby“ and laughed at Tsukamoto, who became enraged and killed him with his sword. Nishimura later found the body with a sword or bayonet blade protruding from its side, and buried it because of the smell. Nishimura returned to PNG in 2010 at 90 years of age, and showed Wetherall the place he believed Templeton was buried, but no body was found.

In July 2015 at the age of 95 he met Leon Cooper, a US veteran also aged 95 who also has an interest in recovering the war dead of his comrades who died in New Guinea. Just as Nishimura was critical of the Japanese government’s efforts, Cooper believed that the US government’s efforts to recover remains were still ineffectual.

He died in October 2015 at the age of 95.

Ackumulator (hydraulik)

En hydraulisk ackumulator är en trycklagringsreservoar där icke komprimerbar hydraulisk vätska hålls under tryck med hjälp av en extern källa. Den yttre källan kan vara en fjäder men’s electric shavers, en upphöjd vikt eller komprimerad gas. Med hjälp av ackumulatorer kan hydrauliska system använda sig av en mindre kraftfull pump för att hantera extrema krav som snabb reaktion på tillfällig efterfrågan och för att utjämna pulseringar. En hydraulisk accumulator är en typ av energilagringsenhet. Komprimerbara gasackumulatorer även kallad hydro-pneumatiska ackumulatorer är den vanligaste typen.

Det finns ett antal olika typer av ackumulatorer som använder sig av olika tekniker beroende på tillverkningsmetod och ändamål.

De första ackumulatorerna var väldigt enkla i sin utformning och var förhöjda vattenreservoarer. Vatten pumpas till reservoaren och vattnets fallhöjd användes sedan för att skapa önskat tryck. Ett exempel på ett sådant vattentorn är Grimsby Dock Tower.

En ackumulatorn som använder sig av upphöjd vikt består av vertikal cylinderformad behållare som innehåller vätska som är kopplat till det hydrauliska systemet. Behållaren är tillsluten med en kolv på ovansidan där ett antal vikter placeras vilket skapar en nedåtriktaf kraft på kolven och därmed tryck på vätskan i behållaren. Tack vare vikterna levererar denna typ ett jämnt tryck what can you use to tenderize meat, i motsats till fjäder eller gasladdade ackumulatorer, under större delen av tiden till dess att behållaren är tom.

Det ursprungliga mekaniska systemet som använder i Tower Bridge, London använde sig av den här typens ackumulatorer. Idag används de inte längre men två av de sex som användes finns att skåda i brons museum.

En gasladdad öppen ackumulator består av två kammare som är separerade med hjälp av ett elastiskt membran, en stängd blåsa eller en flytande kolv. Den ena kammaren innehåller hydraulisk vätska som är kopplat till det hydrauliska systemet medan den andra kammaren innehåller inert gas som är trycksatt (vanligtvis kväve) vilket skapar den tryckande kraften mot den hydrauliska vätskan. Ackumulatorer kan delas upp i olika klasser beroende på vilket tryck de arbetar i. Lågtrycksackumulatorer brukar arbeta i tryck upp till ungefär 50 Bar medan högtrycksackumulatorer som använder sig av blåsa kan hantera arbetstryck upp till 690 Bar.

Med den här tekniken lagras hydraulisk energi genom att komprimera luft likt ett batteri lagrar energi i en elektrisk krets. Till skillnad från en stängd ackumulator har gassidan ett öppet system vilket innebär att trycksatt luft dras in från atmosfären samt pressas ut i atmosfären. Med hjälp av en hydraulisk pump bibehålls trycket av luften genom att öka mängden hydraulisk vätska i systemet.

En fjäderackumulator använder sig av liknande teknik som gasladdade ackumulatorer men istället för gas används en fjäder för att åstadkomma den trycksatta kraften clothing pill shaver.

Metallbälgackumulatorer använder sig av liknande teknik som gasladdade ackumulatorer men istället för ett elastiskt membran eller flytande kolv används en hermetiskt försluten svetsad metallbälg.

I dagens, ofta mobila hydrauliska system används oftast gasladdade ackumulatorer men enklare system kan även använda fjäderackumulatorer best plastic water bottle. Beroende på systemet kan det finnas fler än en ackumulator. Den valda typen och placeringen kan bero på en kompromiss mellan dess effekt och tillverkningskostnad.

Stanisław Michalski (weterynarz)

Stanisław Wojciech Michalski (ur. 23 kwietnia 1900 w Sanoku, zm. wiosna 1940 w Katyniu) – doktor weterynarii, porucznik rezerwy artylerii Wojska Polskiego, ofiara zbrodni katyńskiej.

Urodził się jako syn Kazimierza i Eleonory, z domu Dziura. Ojciec był radcą skarbowym. 6 czerwca 1918 zdał egzamin dojrzałości w Państwowym Gimnazjum w Sanoku (w jego klasie byli m.in. Włodzimierz Godłowski i Jakub Zaleski – również ofiary zbrodni katyńskiej). Był harcerzem.

Pracował w kopalni w Grabownicy Starzeńskiej. 5 maja 1919 jako ochotnik wstąpił do Wojska Polskiego w 1 Pułku Artylerii Ciężkiej Ziemi Krakowskiej otrzymując stanowisko kanoniera w baterii zapasowej. W lipcu 1919 ta jednostka została przemianowana na 3 Pułk Artylerii Ciężkiej i przeniesiona do Lublina. W tym czasie Stanisław Michalski został oddelegowany do Szkoły Podoficerskiej nr 3 w Krakowie, następnie zakończył kurs Podchorążych Szkoły Podoficerskiej Artylerii (wynik celujący) i otrzymał awans do stopnia kaprala. Następnie zakończył egzaminem kurs na podchorążego (wynik celujący).

Brał udział w wojnie polsko-bolszewickiej w szeregach 1 baterii 2 Pułku Artylerii obejmując funkcję łącznika oraz wywiadowcy-obserwatora. Uczestniczył w walkach podczas bitw nad Berezyną koło Głębokiego, Królewszczyzny i Dokszyc, a po przejściu w obszar ukraiński w bojach pod Równem, Łuckiem, Włodzimierzem Wołyńskim. Po wojnie został przeniesiony do rezerwy 22 grudnia 1920 celem podjęcia nauki. Później uczestniczył w ćwiczeniach 5 baterii 10 Pułku Artylerii Ciężkiej. Został mianowany do stopnia podporucznika w Korpusie Oficerów Weterynaryjnych wśród lekarzy weterynaryjnych ze starszeństwem z 1 lipca 1925 (lokata 14). W 1934 jako podporucznik rezerwy w grupie oficerów weterynaryjnych pozostawał wówczas w ewidencji Powiatowej Komendy Uzupełnień Lwów Miasto.

Pierwotnie rozpoczął studia prawa, jednak następnie przeniósł się na weterynarię, którą ukończył na Akademii Medycyny Weterynaryjnej we Lwowie 1925 (absolutorium), a 28 czerwca 1927 uzyskał tytuł lekarza weterynarii. W styczniu 1931 został wybrany zastępcą członka komisji rewizyjnej Lwowskiego Oddziału Zrzeszenia Lekarzy Weterynaryjnych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. W 1939 uzyskał tytuł naukowy doktora. Pracował na stanowisku adiunkta w Katedrze Chirurgii. Wykładał rentgenologię. Publikował artykuły w czasopiśmie „Przegląd Weterynaryjny”.

Ukończył Wołyńską Szkołę Podchorążych Rezerwy Artylerii. Został mianowany do stopnia porucznika artylerii ze starszeństwem 1 stycznia 1935. Był przydzielony do Powiatowej Komendy Uzupełnień we Lwowie.

Wobec zagrożenia konfliktem w 1939 został przydzielony do Powiatowej Komendy Uzupełnień we Lwowie i do 27 Pułku Artylerii Lekkiej. Po wybuchu II wojny światowej uczestniczył w kampanii wrześniowej. Po agresji ZSRR na Polskę na terenach wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej został aresztowany przez Sowietów heavy duty fabric shaver. Był przetrzymywany w obozie w Kozielsku. O jego pobycie w obozie wspomniał kolega szkolny Zdzisław Peszkowski. Na wiosnę 1940 został zabrany w jednym z pierwszych transportów do Katynia i tam zginął z rąk funkcjonariuszy Obwodowego Zarządu NKWD w Smoleńsku oraz pracowników NKWD przybyłych z Moskwy na mocy decyzji Biura Politycznego KC WKP(b) z 5 marca 1940. W 1943 jego ciało zostało zidentyfikowane pod numerem 1186 w toku ekshumacji prowadzonych przez Niemców (przy zwłokach znaleziono legitymację urzędnika i różaniec), gdzie został pochowany w mogile bratniej drugiej na terenie obecnego Polskiego Cmentarza Wojennego w Katyniu.

Podczas „Jubileuszowego Zjazdu Koleżeńskiego b. Wychowanków Gimnazjum Męskiego w Sanoku w 70-lecie pierwszej Matury” 21 czerwca 1958 nazwisko Stanisława Michalskiego zostało wymienione w apelu poległych w obronie Ojczyzny w latach 1939-1945 oraz na ustanowionej w budynku gimnazjum tablicy pamiątkowej poświęconej poległym i pomordowanym absolwentom gimnazjum.

5 października 2007 roku Minister Obrony Narodowej Aleksander Szczygło awansował go pośmiertnie do stopnia kapitana. Awans został ogłoszony 9 listopada 2007 roku w Warszawie, w trakcie uroczystości „Katyń Pamiętamy – Uczcijmy Pamięć Bohaterów” water bottle belt pouch.

18 kwietnia 2009 w ramach akcji „Katyń… pamiętamy” / „Katyń… Ocalić od zapomnienia”, w tzw. Alei Katyńskiej na Cmentarzu Centralnym w Sanoku zostało zasadzonych 21 Dębów Pamięci, w tym upamiętniający Stanisława Michalskiego (zasadzenia dokonał dr Piotr Uruski, historyk, przewodniczący Komisji Rady Powiatu Sanockiego).

Liste der Biografien/Vak

Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ?

Va – Ve – Vh – Vi – Vj – Vl – Vn – Vo – Vr – Vs – Vt&nbsp double glass water bottle;– Vu – Vy

Vaa – Vab – Vac – Vad – Vae – Vaf – Vag – Vah – Vai – Vaj – Vak – Val – Vam – Van – Vap – Vaq – Var – Vas – Vat – Vau – Vav – Vaw – Vax – Vay – Vaz

Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ?

Va&nbsp methods of tenderizing meat;– Ve – Vh – Vi – Vj – Vl – Vn – Vo – Vr – Vs – Vt – Vu – Vy

Vaa – Vab – Vac – Vad – Vae – Vaf – Vag – Vah – Vai – Vaj – Vak – Val – Vam – Van – Vap – Vaq – Var – Vas – Vat – Vau – Vav – Vaw – Vax – Vay – Vaz

vorteile für die gesundheit trinken kamel – milch

kamel – milch, die aus medizinischen gründen genommen über jahrhunderte von nomaden, ist am nächsten an der mutter ¡¯ s milch und enthält 10 mal mehr eisen und drei mal mehr vitamin c als kuh ¡¯ s milch, nach der huffington post.kamele verfügen über einzigartige, leistungsfähiges immunsystem – komponenten, die in der milch enthalten sind.kamel – milch könnte profitieren erkrankungen einschließlich diabetes und autismus.wie bei allen natürlichen heilmittel, konsultieren sie ihren arzt vor dem trinken kamel – milch.
fettarm kamel milch enthält nicht nur gesunde vitamine und mineralien, aber auch eine reiche quelle von insulin

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.diese milch berichten zufolge hat etwa ein liter von insulin in jedem liter, die ein potenzieller behandlungsmöglichkeiten für diabetiker.die huffington post zitiert eine studie von 2005 von indien ¡¯ s bikaner diabetes care research center beobachtet die auswirkungen der kamel – milch an typ – 1 – diabetes.forscher haben festgestellt, dass ein kamel – milch deutlich verringert, insulindosis erforderlich, um langfristige glykämische oder blutzucker – kontrolle.r.p. agrawal nach führen forscher dr., 500 ml raw, frisch kamel milch täglich verbessert die leben von diabetikern durch eine insulin – protein, das wird rasch absorbiert und nicht koagulieren.allerdings heißt es auch, dass insulin agrawal bleibt die effizientesten therapie gegen diabetes, es sei denn, es ist keine option.während die forschung scheint vielversprechend, weitere wissenschaftliche untersuchungen sind notwendig, um zu beweisen, dass die wirksamkeit kamel – milch für die behandlung von diabetes.
ein kamel – milch – befürworter glauben, dass die kamel – milch könnte davon profitieren menschen mit autismus.eine studie veröffentlicht, die 2005 in der ausgabe des ¡° international journal of human development ¡± beobachtet die auswirkungen der kamel – milch verbrauch statt kuhmilch, autisten.forscher entdeckten, dass nach einer vierjährigen weibliche teilnehmer tranken kamel – milch für 40 tage, ihr autismus – symptome verschwunden.ein 15 – jähriger junge auch wieder nach 30 tagen trinken die milch.neben mehreren autistischen 21 – jährigen verbraucht, kamel – milch für zwei wochen beobachtet werden leiser und weniger selbstzerstörerisch.wenn die milch wird angenommen, von vorteil, nicht über ausreichende wissenschaftliche belege gibt, um zu beweisen, dass die wirksamkeit in der behandlung von autismus.
kamel – milch fehlt zwei starke allergene in kuhmilch und enthält immunsystem komponenten zum wohle der kinder allergisch auf milch und andere lebensmittel.eine studie veröffentlicht, in der sie im dezember 2005 ausgabe des ¡° israel medical association journal ¡± untersuchte die auswirkungen von kamel – milch auf acht kinder mit schweren, milch und andere lebensmittel – allergien.nach dessen auf konventionelle therapien, die studienteilnehmer verbrauchten kamel – milch unter der leitung von forschern.tägliche berichte darauf hin, dass alle acht kinder vollständig erholt von den allergien ohne nebenwirkungen.in der tat haben forscher festgestellt, dass die ergebnisse waren spektakulär im vergleich mit traditionellen therapien.krankheit gegen immunglobuline in kamel – milch seien spielen eine wichtige rolle bei der verringerung der allergische symptome, aber zusätzliche wissenschaftliche forschung ist notwendig, um ausreichend beweisen, dass die wirksamkeit der kamel – milch in der behandlung von allergien.
die starken immunsystem komponenten im kamel – milch könnte helfen, die bekämpfung von krankheiten.angeblich, die geringe größe der immunglobuline oder antikörper in camel milch ermöglicht einfache ausrichtung und durchdringung ausländischer krankheitserregende substanzen namens antigene, die zerstörung durch das immunsystem.menschen mit autoimmun – erkrankungen wie morbus ¡¯ demenz und multiple sklerose, haben ihr eigenes immunsystem angreifen gewebe des körpers.obwohl die traditionellen behandlungen für autoimmunerkrankungen das immunsystem unterdrücken, kamel – milch nutzen diese erkrankungen, die es nach israelischen physiologie, emeritierter professor dr. reuven yagil.trotz konventioneller weisheit, yagil behauptet, dass seine bemerkungen über einen zeitraum von fünf jahren zeigen, dass die kamel – milch kann kontrollieren oder gar heilen autoimmunerkrankungen, aber nicht über ausreichende wissenschaftliche belege gibt, um zu beweisen, dass die wirksamkeit der kamel – milch in der behandlung von autoimmunerkrankungen.

Cingulin


n/a

Cingulin (CGN; from the Latin cingere “to form a belt around”) is a cytosolic protein encoded by the CGN gene in humans localized at tight junctions (TJs) of vertebrate epithelial and endothelial cells.

Cingulin was originally discovered at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK) by Dr boys goalkeeper gloves. Sandra Citi, as a protein present in chicken intestinal epithelial cells, that co-purified with non-muscle myosin II and was specifically localized at tight junctions (zonulae occludentes).

Cingulin is a homodimer, each subunit containing a N-terminal globular „head“ domain, a long α-helical coiled-coil „rod“ domain and a small globular C-terminal „tail“ region. This organization is highly conserved throughout vertebrates. However, cingulin homologs have not been detected in invertebrates.

In vitro, cingulin can bind to and bundle actin filaments, and interact with myosin II and several TJ proteins including ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, paracingulin and occludin the best stainless steel water bottle. Moreover, cingulin forms a complex with JAM-A, a tight junction membrane protein. Most of cingulin protein interactions are through the globular head domain. Cingulin interacts with ZO-1 through an N-terminal ZO-1 interacting motif (ZIM) in its head region. The rod domain is involved in dimerization and interaction with the RhoA activator, GEF-H1.

Cingulin has also been found to interact with microtubules (MTs) through the N-terminal head region, and these interactions was regulated by phosphorylation by the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

The function of cingulin has been studied by knockout (KO), knockdown (KD) and over-expression approaches. Embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells where one or both cingulin alleles were targeted by homologous recombination show apparently normal tight junctions, but changes in the expression of a large number of genes, including tight junction protein genes (claudin-2, claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). Changes in the expression of claudin-2 and ZO-3 are also observed in cultured kidney cells (MDCK) depleted of cingulin by shRNA.

In 2012, the phenotype of cingulin-knockout mice was described, proving that functional TJ in vivo can be formed in the absence of cingulin. Together with paracingulin, cingulin also was reported to regulate claudin-2 expression through RhoA-dependent and independent mechanisms. The role of cingulin in development has been studied by morpholino. oligonucleotide-mediated depletion in chicken, indicating that cingulin is involved in neural crest development custom football t shirts. In early mouse and frog embryos, maternal cingulin is localized in the cell cortex. Through early mouse development, cytocortical cingulin in present from oogenesis (cumulus-oocyte contact sites) until 16-cells morulae stage (apical microvillous zones) during early embryogenesis; then maternal cingulin is degraded by endocytic turn-over from the 32-cells stage. Regarding the zygotic cingulin, it accumulates at the tight junctions from 16-cells stage, 10 hours after ZO-1 assembly. Furthermore, the synthesis of cingulin in early mouse embryos is tissue-specific and it occurs in blastocyst (up-regulated in trophectoderm and down-regulated in inner-cells). In Xenopus laevis embryos, maternal cingulin is recruited to apical cell-cell junctions from 2-cells stage.

In 2004, a protein homologous to cingulin was discovered and named JACOP (also known as paracingulin good meat tenderizer, or cingulin-like 1 protein; CGNL1).

Although cingulin has been involved in regulation of RhoA signaling and gene expression in cultured cells and KO mice, nothing is known about the specific role of cingulin in human diseases. Cingulin expression has been studied in human carcinomas and shown to be expressed in adenocarcinomas and down-regulated in squamous carcinomas. Furthermore, histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as sodium butyrate, strongly upregulate its expression in some cultured cells. Cingulin, as other junctional proteins could be used as a marker of epithelial differentiation, and as a diagnostic marker to distinguish adenocarcinomas from squamous carcinomas.

Recherchefjorden

Koordinater:

Recherchefjorden er ei bukt i Wedel Jarlsberg Land sørvest på Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Recherchefjorden ligger sør i Bellsund og strekker seg sørover like vest for munningen av Van Keulenfjorden. Den avgrenses av Pocockodden og Reinodden. I fjordbotnen munner Recherchebreen ut i havet. Fjellsidene er relativt bratte med topper opp til mer enn 1 000 meter. Nordvest for Recherchefjorden ligger Calypsobyen bygd i 1918-19 av Norhern Exploration Company. Calypsobyen et av de største anleggene for kulldrift utenom dagens bosetninger.

Før 1838 var Recherchefjorden kjent av hvalfangerne som Schoonhaven eller Clean bay

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. Dagens navn er resultat av den franske La Recherche-ekspedisjonen som i to uker sommeren 1838 oppholdt seg her.

Recherchefjorden var en god havn i hvalfangst- og ekspedisjonsperiodene, og selv om isen kunne ligge i Bellsund var det sjelden vanskelig for skuter å komme inn til havn.

østsiden av Recherchefjorden ligger Lægerneset under dobbeltfjellene Maria Theresiatoppen (653 m) og Jarnfjellet (700 m), med en hvalfangststasjon etablert av nederlendere i 1612. Stasjonen ble senere solgt til engelskmenn og forlatt i 1640. Det finnes rester etter spekkovner, tufter, utkikksposter og et gravfelt i nord. I nesten to hundre år, fra begynnelsen av 1600-tallet til slutten av 1700-tallet, var fjorden en av de største samlingsplassene for hvalfangstflåten på Svalbard. Britene drev et hvalkokeri på Lægerneset. På 1800-tallet dominerte den russiske pomor-aktiviteten waterproof cover, og mannskapet i en russisk lodje overvintret her i 1823. Det engelske Northern Exploration Company hadde en base, Camp 1 Volage, her på Lægerneset i mellomkrigstiden. Hele Lægerneset har ferdselsforbud på grunn av kulturminnene. Northern Exploration Company sin Camp 2 er antakelig identisk med Bamsebu på Kapp Toscna lengre øst i Van Keulenfjorden – den ble antakelig flyttet dit.

Litt sør for Lægerneset renner Jarnbekken ut, rett vest for Jarnfjellet, og her ligger Iron Mountain Camp, trolig bygd sommeren 1918 av Northern Exploration Company. Basen ble brukt ved undersøkelse av forekomster av jernmalm i Martinfjella. Det ble reist fire hus, men allerede i 1936 var ett av dem blåst vekk. Anlegget tilhører Staten siden 1932 og på 1980-tallet var bare restene av ett hus tilbake.

På Recherchefjordens vestside er det flere kulturminner. På Tomtodden et stykke inne i fjorden, ligger restene etter den russiske Cicagov-ekspedisjonen i 1764-66. Dette var en ekspedisjon utrustet for å finne en nordlig passasje til Stillehavet mellom Grønland og Svalbard. Ambisjonen ble aldri oppfylt. Tomtodden ble brukt som base for ekspedisjonens to overvintringer. På stedet finnes det mange hustufter fra boliger, badstue og forrådshus. I tillegg finnes det minst fem russekorsfundamenter.

Recherchefjorden inngikk i Fangstfelt 4 (Calypsofeltet) mens østkysten inngikk i felt 5 (Midterhuken) under den norske fangstperioden før andre verdenskrig, feltet omfattet hele vestkysten av Wedel Jarlsberg Land og sørkysten av Bellsund til og med Recherchefjorden. Det ble jaktet mye polarrev, men det var lite isbjørn her.

På Snatcherpynten står Camp Smith eller «Giæverhuset» og ble i sin tid satt opp av konsul Johs. Giæver fra Tromsø i 1904, antagelig som privat sommerhus. På samme plass ligger restene etter en hvalfangststasjon og et lite gravfelt. Nær Calypsobyen lå også Camp Jacobsen som ble reist allerede i 1901 og brukt av NEC i 1918 og senere norske fangstmenn i mellomkrigstiden.

Innerst i fjorden bygde konsul Giæver også hytta Camp Asbestos i 1921, på oppdrag av Northern Exploration Company (NEC). Ved Calypsostranda er det gruveutstyr fra det samme selskapets virksomhet, de fattet interesse for kull-leiene som finnes ved stranda. NEC annekterte stedet i 1911, men i likhet med Hornsund-skjerpene så fant de heller ikke her noen utvinnbare mineraler. Derimot reiste de Calypsobyen i årene 1918-19, og husene ble kjøpt av den norske stat i 1932. Innerst i fjorden reiste også selskapet A/S Kulspids en hytte i 1918. Begge selskapene utforsket kullet i Calypso-området og ute på Kapp Lyell omkring første verdenskrig. De hadde også dype konflikter seg imellom om eiendomsretten til forekomsten av asbest inne på Asbestodden helt innerst i fjorden.

Угерски-Острог

Чехия

Злинский

Угерске-Градиште

48°59′05″ с. ш. 17°23′19″ в. д black football uniforms.

Властимил Ванек

1286

26,52 км²

178 м

4411 человек (2012)

169 чел./км²

687 24

Угерски-Острог (чеш. Uherský Ostroh, букв. «Венгерский острог (крепость)») — город в Чехии в Злинском крае, районе Угерске-Градиште. Расположен на юго-востоке страны в исторической Моравской Словакии на берегу реки Моравы water bottle waist pack, притока Дуная.

Расстояние до административного центра района Угерске-Градиште — 11 км.

Население г. Старе-Место на 01.01.2012 г. — 4 411 человек.

Первое письменное упоминание встречается в 1286 году. До 1846 года носил название Острог (Ostroh) cheap football uniforms.

Parti travailliste (Maroc)

Le Parti travailliste (PT, arabe : الحزب العمالي) était un parti politique marocain fondé en 2005 de centre gauche à référentiel social-démocrate. Il vise à promouvoir, au sein de la société marocaine, les valeurs de démocratie, d’équité, de justice ainsi que celles du travail et du savoir. Lors des dernières élections législatives du , le parti a obtenu 4 sièges à la chambre basse du parlement marocain.

Fin décembre 2005, Abdelkrim Benatiq, Omar Seghrouchni et Mohammed el-Ouchari ont annoncé la création du Parti Travailliste. L’année 2006 a été consacrée à la mise en place de structures légales du nouveau parti qui a tenu son congrès constitutif à Fès les 14 et 15 mai 2006. La majorité écrasante des 4500 congressistes a élu le Secrétaire général du parti, Abdelkrim Benatiq, ainsi que les 417 membres du Conseil National. Le PT s’est fortement impliqué dans la défense d’un code électoral plus juste. Il a, par ailleurs, en décembre 2006 rassemblé près de 8000 jeunes à Rabat glass gym bottle.

Le Parti Travailliste est un parti récemment créé. Il n’a donc pas encore d’idéologie affirmée et forte. Depuis sa création, il n’a toujours pas défini clairement son positionnement : initialement de gauche, il se positionne actuellement en centre gauche, même s’il n’a pas encore conclu d’alliances goalkeeper gloves junior, ni à gauche, ni au centre de l’échiquier politique. Cependant, il revendique clairement des idées (sur la participation au gouvernement, la réforme de la Constitution et l’attitude à tenir vis-à-vis des islamistes) qui témoignent d’un certain courage politique, ce qui n’est pas toujours le cas des partis politiques marocains. Et enfin, il déploie de gros efforts de communication (de proximité, surtout) par rapport aux autres partis.

En ce qui concerne les enjeux électoraux des élections législatives du 9 septembre 2007, le parti hooped football socks, réaliste, espère seulement exercer une opposition concrète qui pourrait « focaliser les revendications sociales et les adapter aux réalités du pays ». Il reporte dès lors ses vrais ambitions aux élections législatives de 2012.

Barga

Barga è un comune italiano di 9 931 abitanti della provincia di Lucca in Toscana buy water in glass bottles.

Costituisce il centro più popoloso della Media Valle del Serchio e per la sua importanza storica, artistica, civica e demografica, Barga si fregia del titolo di Città dal 1933. È stata riconosciuta tra i „borghi più belli d’Italia“, bandiera arancione del Touring Club Italiano e Cittaslow, marchi di qualità turistica di prestigio.

Barga è situata a 410 metri sul livello del mare, sul Colle Remeggio nel cuore della Media Valle del Serchio, territorio collinare situato tra la piana della città di Lucca e le montagne della valle Garfagnana.

Reperti archeologici documentano che il territorio è stato abitato fin dalla preistoria; in età storica vi risiedevano i Liguri, assoggettati poi dai Romani nel II secolo a.C. durante la loro espansione verso nord. Di Barga sappiamo che nel secolo nono era feudo della famiglia longobarda dei Rolandinghi e successivamente, attraverso i marchesi di Toscana, fu soggetta all’Impero, conservando però ampia indipendenza.

Nel periodo comunale il territorio subì continui assedi da parte dei lucchesi e dei Pisani, finché nel 1341 Barga preferì sottomettersi a Firenze. Questo rappresenta il periodo di maggiore splendore: i Medici ebbero grande interesse per questa zona da cui traevano importanti materie prime e concessero privilegi ed esenzioni fiscali che consentirono lo sviluppo di fiorenti attività e commerci. La ricchezza conseguita permise, durante il XV, XVI e XVII secolo, la costruzioni di palazzi di stile rinascimentale, fra cui Palazzo Pancrazi, sede comunale, Palazzo Balduini e Palazzo Bertacchi, che ospiterà in tempi diversi i granduchi di Toscana. Nell’organizzazione amministrativa del Granducato di Toscana Barga fece parte del Distretto fiorentino per passare poi, dopo la restaurazione, alla provincia pisana. Nel 1849, a seguito dell’annessione del Ducato di Lucca alla Toscana, fu creato il Compartimento di Lucca. Tale struttura territoriale fu formata dai territori dell’ex Ducato di Lucca meno quelli ceduti a Modena (Montignoso, Gallicano, le tre terre in comune di Fosciandora, Castiglione di Garfagnana e Minucciano), da Barga, dal capitanato di Pietrasanta e dalla Valdinievole.

Con l’annessione al Regno d’Italia il Compartimento Lucchese fu trasformato in provincia di Lucca e Barga ne restò il comune più settentrionale al confine con la provincia di Massa e Carrara (che, al tempo, comprendeva l’intera Garfagnana). Con l’annessione al neocostituito Regno iniziò un lento declino economico che portò una considerevole parte della popolazione ad emigrare verso il Regno Unito e gli Stati Uniti d’America. Non si trattò un’emigrazione definitiva per molti di loro, poiché, alla fine del secolo scorso, cominciarono a ritornare a Barga, investendo i loro risparmi in terreni e nella costruzione di ville nell’allora immediata periferia cittadina.

Durante la seconda guerra mondiale, Barga si trovò sulla Linea Gotica, e visse direttamente l’esperienza del fronte.

Negli ultimi anni il territorio si è industrializzato a valle favorendo un’economia mista, mentre sono diminuiti gli insediamenti più alti che non offrivano concrete possibilità di sviluppo. Di recente si sono sviluppate le attività turistiche favorite dalla particolare posizione di Barga, che si trova al centro di una zona di interesse naturalistico e geologico.

La chiesa di San Cristoforo, l’edificio religioso più importante di Barga, è stata costruita in tempi diversi. La primitiva costruzione risale a prima dell’anno 1000. Negli ampliamenti successivi si evidenziano elementi architettonici e decorativi di suggestiva bellezza che vanno dal romanico al gotico. Con la realizzazione delle due cappelle laterali e del coro si completa la costruzione della chiesa. Al suo interno si distinguono un pulpito marmoreo di scuola comacina del XIII secolo, la statua lignea di origine medioevale, raffigurante San Cristoforo, pregevoli terrecotte robbiane, ed un crocifisso ligneo del XV secolo di scuola bolognese. Questo contesto è sovrastato dalla torre campanaria con le antiche campane, fra le quali la piccola è datata 1580; i rintocchi di queste campane ispirarono al poeta Giovanni Pascoli la poesia „L’ora di Barga“.

L’arringo è il vasto prato fra il duomo e il palazzo pretorio, dove il popolo si riuniva a parlamento. Da ogni lato del piazzale, si può osservare il magnifico panorama che circonda Barga, costituito dai monti delle Pizzorne, dalle Alpi Apuane e dagli Appennini. La loggia del podestà è un edificio civile del XIV secolo residenza dei commissari e podestà inviati a Barga dalla Signoria di Firenze. Nell’interno si trovano la sala delle udienze e al di sotto le vecchie prigioni; sul muro esterno sono visibili le unità di misura di quei tempi: lo staio, il mezzo staio reusable juice bottles, il braccio barghigiano. È sede del museo civico e vi sono conservati reperti di notevole importanza che permettono di ricostruire la storia del territorio barghigiano.

Casa Pascoli, sita sul Colle di Caprona nella frazione di Castelvecchio Pascoli, fu costruita intorno alla metà del Settecento dalla famiglia Cardosi Carrara come villa di campagna. Fu abitazione di Giovanni Pascoli dal 1895 al 1912. L’edificio conserva la struttura, gli arredi, la disposizione degli spazi che aveva al momento della morte del poeta; vi sono conservati i suoi libri e i suoi manoscritti. Annessa alla villa sorge la cappella dove Pascoli è sepolto. Ci sono conservate anche alcune foto del soggiorno del poeta a Messina del periodo immediatamente precedente il terremoto del 1908.

Il 23 aprile 1688 si costituì a Barga un’accademia che prese il nome di Accademia dei Differenti. Per poter svolgere l’attività recitativa, alcuni accademici decisero di edificare un teatro, che successivamente venne ampliato e ristrutturato: l’inaugurazione avvenne il 25 luglio 1795. Nel corso degli anni vi furono rappresentate varie opere e operette, ed è qui che, nel pomeriggio del 26 novembre 1911, Giovanni Pascoli pronunciò l’orazione „La grande proletaria s’è mossa“, a sostegno della guerra di Libia.

Le porte di entrata al Castello erano tre: Porta Manciana (o mancianella), Porta di Borgo e Porta Macchiaia. Porta Mancianella venne successivamente denominata Porta Reale, in omaggio al Granduca di Toscana Leopoldo di Lorena che nel 1787 fece visita a Barga. Porta di Borgo, che delimitava l’accesso a via di Borgo, fu demolita nel 1833. La terza porta denominata Macchiaia o Latria è posta a nord-est della città storica, verso le macchie appenniniche.

II piazzale portava il nome di re Vittorio Emanuele II. Dal secondo dopoguerra, è stato ripristinato il nome antico „del Fosso“ in ricordo del fossato che scorreva lungo le mura esterne, ricoperto nel 1834. Sull’antico bastione si trova un monumento in bronzo dedicato ad Antonio Mordini, opera dello scultore Raffaello Romanelli, inaugurato il 28 agosto 1905.

Abitanti censiti

Secondo i dati ISTAT al 31 dicembre 2010 la popolazione straniera residente era di 864 persone. Le nazionalità maggiormente rappresentate in base alla loro percentuale sulla popolazione totale residente erano:

Romania 218 2,11%

Albania 190 1,84%

Marocco 166 1,61%

Regno Unito 119 1,15%

Il dialetto barghigiano, in virtù delle vicende storiche della città, presenta differenze peculiari rispetto al resto dei dialetti della Valle del Serchio. Il barghigiano fa, infatti, parte del gruppo fiorentino pur avendo inevitabilmente subìto influssi dal dialetto lucchese e dalle parlate basso garfagnine-versiliesi. Numerose sono, quindi, le espressioni di chiara derivazione fiorentina: ad esempio l’ingresso di un palazzo, noto come „loggia“ in lucchesia, a Barga è definito „àndito“, in fiorentino. Diversi segni portano, inoltre, a pensare che le varianti montane del barghigiano (parlate a Renaio, Sommocolonia, Tiglio e nella montagna del comune di Coreglia Antelminelli) fossero, in origine, parlate di tipo basso garfagnino-alto versiliese poi, in parte, toscanizzatesi.

Barga è la terra di adozione di Giovanni Pascoli. Nel centro storico si trova il Teatro dei Differenti da cui il poeta pronunciò il noto discorso „La Grande Proletaria s’è mossa“ (1911) e sul Colle di Caprona, nella frazione di Castelvecchio Pascoli, è visitabile la Casa museo Pascoli.

La cucina barghigiana è principalmente basata sulla cucina fiorentina, con adattamenti che si sono resi inevitabili sulla base delle caratteristiche e dei prodotti tipici del territorio. Tra le specialità di origine fiorentina che è possibile trovare con facilità a Barga (a differenza del resto della Provincia di Lucca) vi sono: pane sciocco (senza sale o toscano), crostini di fegatini, ribollita, baccalà alla fiorentina, peposo alla fornacina, fagioli all’uccelletto, farinata, castagnaccio (torta di necci nel resto della lucchesia), cenci, frittelle di necci, schiacciata toscana (focaccia nel resto della lucchesia), zuccotto. Numerose sono state, nel corso dei secoli, le influenze della cucina lucchese, garfagnina e pisana, riscontrabili nei seguenti piatti: crostini con salse vegetali, zuppa frantoiana, zuppa di farro, pappardelle al cinghiale, trota di fiume alla griglia, manafatoli, salumi suini di origine locale, formaggi pecorini e caprini di origine locale, fritto misto di verdure di bosco, buccellato con uvetta.

Barga ospitò nel 1974 una puntata di Giochi senza frontiere.

A Barga si svolge durante la seconda metà di luglio Live in Barga (meglio conosciuta come Festa del Centro Storico aka Festa delle Piazzette), vero e proprio festival della musica dal vivo (nell’ultima edizione 2013 si sono tenuti più di 50 concerti in 11 serate). Organizzato dalla locale Associazione Pro Loco in collaborazione con l’amministrazione comunale e con la direzione artistica del Barga Jazz Club.

Nella seconda metà di agosto si tiene il famoso concorso internazionale Barga Jazz Festival che richiama ogni anno appassionati di musica jazz da tutta Italia ed oltre.

Le contrade della città sono: Ponte di Catagnana, Arsenale, Catagnana, Filecchio, San Quirico.

Il territorio comunale di Barga è composto, oltre che dal capoluogo, da altri undici centri abitati con status di frazione.

La frazione principale del comune è Fornaci di Barga, che sorge a 165 m s.l.m. sulla riva sinistra del fiume Serchio e costituisce il centro nevralgico e commerciale del territorio comunale e dell’intera Media Valle del Serchio grazie alla presenza di numerose attività commerciali e industriali.

Le altre frazioni del comune di Barga vengono convenzionalmente suddivise in urbane e montane: Albiano, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Loppia, Mologno, Ponte all’Ania e San Pietro in Campo sono considerate frazioni urbane, mentre Renaio, Sommocolonia e Tiglio sono frazioni montane.

Loppia, situata tra Barga e Fornaci di Barga, è sede di una pieve romanica; in località Filecchio nel mese di settembre si svolge invece la sagra della Polenta e degli Uccelli. Castelvecchio Pascoli è nota per il fatto che vi si stabilì, nel 1895, il poeta Giovanni Pascoli: la casa, rimasta così com’era alla sua morte per volontà della sorella Maria, è ancora pervasa dall’atmosfera creata dal poeta. Mologno sorge lungo la Strada regionale 445, attorno alla stazione ferroviaria di Barga-Gallicano. La frazione, mero agglomerato di caseggiati fino a pochi anni or sono (onde la popolare denominazione di Barga Stazione), ha conosciuto un importante sviluppo edilizio a partire dagli anni novanta. Nell’ex magazzino merci ferroviario è stata realizzata una chiesa, dedicata ai SS. Angeli Custodi, e nel paese sono state impiantate alcune attività commerciali. San Pietro in Campo sorge a circa 1,5 km a sud di Barga lungo l’omonima via che prende origine da Largo Roma e prosegue con il Viale dei Barghigiani nel Mondo, dedicato al fenomeno dell’emigrazione che caratterizzò Barga e il suo versante appenninico nel Novecento. San Pietro in Campo ha acquisito, nel corso degli anni ottanta, una vocazione agro-artigianale. Da segnalare è la chiesa di San Pietro Apostolo, sita nell’omonima via, restaurata nei primi anni 2000. Tipica è, ogni fine agosto, la Sagra del maiale nella quale si possono assaggiare le prelibatezze della cucina barghigiana che mantiene i caratteri tipici della cucina fiorentina. Il „comitato paesano“ (patrocinato dall’amministrazione comunale) organizza periodicamente tornei e feste nel paese. Da ricordare una lirica di Giovanni Pascoli, barghigiano d’adozione: „Il soldato di San Pietro in Campo“.

La montagna barghigiana è costituita dalle frazioni di Renaio, Sommocolonia e Tiglio. In tale contesto è particolarmente apprezzato il piccolo borgo di Sommocolonia, dominato da una Rocca da cui è visibile un ampio panorama sulla Media Valle del Serchio.

Il comune è servito dalla ex strada statale 445, oggi strada regionale 445.

La stazione ferroviaria principale del comune sorge, lungo la Ferrovia Lucca-Aulla, nella frazione di Fornaci di Barga in piazza Aldo Moro. Da tale stazione ferroviaria partì il poeta Giovanni Pascoli, gravemente malato, per Bologna e sempre in questo scalo ne ritornò la salma, il 10 aprile 1912, con treno speciale, per trovare sepoltura nella sua casa di Castelvecchio Pascoli.

Altre stazioni site lungo la medesima linea sono Barga-Gallicano (nella frazione Mologno) e Castelvecchio Pascoli.

Di seguito è presentata una tabella relativa alle amministrazioni che si sono succedute in questo comune.

Hanno sede nel comune le società di calcio: A.S.D. Barga 1924, U.S.D. Fornaci, A.S.D. Sacro Cuore, Filecchio Fratres, che hanno disputato campionati dilettantistici regionali.

Si è conclusa a Barga l’11ª tappa del Giro d’Italia 1995, vinta da Enrico Zaina.

Altri progetti