Defense Contract Audit Agency

The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense under the direction of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller). It was established in 1965 to perform all contract audits for the Department of Defense. Previously, the various branches of military service were responsible for their own contract audits.

The DCAA’s duties include financial and accounting advisory services for the Department of Defense in connection with negotiation, administration and settlement of contracts and subcontracts.

The Defense Contract Audit Agency was established on January 8, 1965. Previously, the various branches of the military were responsible for their own contract audits and there was little consistency in contract administration and auditing.

The first efforts to perform joint audits began with the U.S. Navy and Army Air Corps in 1939. Audit coordination committees were formed by the Navy and Army Air Corps in December 1942 for contracts involving more than one service branch. A single contract audit manual was issued on June 18, 1952, serving the three military service branches existing at that time. However, writing standard guidelines was difficult, due to differences in the organization and practice of procurement between the services.

Defense contract audits became the responsibility of a single agency, the DCAA, in response to a feasibility study directed by Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in 1962. William B. Petty, former Deputy Comptroller of the U.S. Air Force, was appointed in 1965 as the new agency’s director and Edward T. Cook, former Director of Contract Audit for the Navy, was selected as the deputy director.

As of September 30, 2013, the Defense Contract Audit Agency had 4,933 employees, located at more than 300 offices throughout the United States, Europe, Asia, and in the Pacific. This workforce consisted of 4,334 auditors and 599 support staff.

The Agency provides standardized contract audit services for the Department of Defense, as well as accounting and financial advisory services regarding contracts and subcontracts to all DoD components responsible for procurement and contract administration. These services are provided in connection with negotiation, administration, and settlement of contracts and subcontracts. DCAA does not provide consulting and advisory services to contractors due to independence requirements.

Prior to 2015, DCAA also provided contract audit services to other government agencies, as well as other countries under the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, on a reimbursable basis. The largest non-DoD agency for which DCAA performed audits was NASA—primarily since the same government contractors do substantial business with both DoD and NASA, especially on major programs. However, Congress banned DCAA from performing non-Defense audits in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016.

The DCAA headquarters is located at Fort Belvoir, in the same building as the Defense Logistics Agency. Under headquarters, the agency is organized into five geographic regions and a Field Detachment group, the latter handling contracts involving classified information. As of 2011, the DCAA was organized into the following geographic regions.

Within each region are 15 to 22 field audit offices. These are referred to as resident offices when dedicated to the audit of one contractor, generally located on the contractor’s property. Branches are field audit offices that perform audits of multiple contractors, and may have subordinate sub-offices responsible for audits of a single contractor.

The DCAA also operates the Defense Contract Audit Institute (DCAI), located in Smyrna, Georgia with the Agency’s Eastern Region office. Its teaching staff maintain a library of self-study courses as well as providing seminars by live instructors to meet the training requirements of DCAA employees. On a limited basis, the institute also provides training for other government agencies and foreign military employees.

Defense contract audits are required to be performed in accordance with Government Auditing Standards. These standards, commonly referred to as the „Yellow Book“, are published by the Comptroller General of the United States. Polices and guidelines more specific to defense contract auditing are detailed in the Defense Contract Audit Manual, a continuously updated online publication of the DCAA.

The objective of a contract audit is to express an opinion, in the form of an auditor’s report, on a contractor’s cost estimates or cost claims, depending on the type of contract. This involves evaluation of the contractor’s policies, procedures and other internal controls over contract costs, and examining samples of supporting records for individual transactions. Government Auditing Standards require the contract auditor to maintain strict independence during audits, avoiding relationships and situations that would look questionable to third parties.

The Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) assign responsibility to the contractor for maintaining sufficient records to support claimed costs. FAR 31.201-2(d) requires the contractor to keep „records, including supporting documentation, adequate to demonstrate that costs claimed have been incurred, are allocable to the contract, and comply with applicable cost principles“. The same FAR provision allows a government agency’s contracting officer to „disallow all or part of a claimed cost that is inadequately supported.“

A major area of emphasis in a DCAA audit is determining the adequacy and reliability of the contractor’s records to prove the accuracy and reasonableness of contract costs. FAR 4.703(a) requires contractors to „make available records, which includes books, documents, accounting procedures and practices, and other data … to satisfy contract negotiation, administration, and audit requirements“.

A report released by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) on July 23, 2008 alleged that DCAA managers threatened a senior auditor with personnel action if he did not remove negative findings from a report criticizing a large federal contractor. The report found a too-cozy relationship between management at the DCAA and some of the contractors they are assigned to audit, including Boeing. GAO also said auditors who complied with the investigation were subject to harassment and intimidation from their supervisors.

The DCAA responded on July 25 that it had asked the US Department of Defense’s (DoD) Inspector General (IG) office to investigate the GAO’s claims. „We take the GAO report very seriously,“ said April Stephenson, DCAA’s director. US Senator Claire McCaskill said GAO may have uncovered the „biggest auditing scandal in the history of this town,“ and asked the DoD to immediately fire the supervisors cited in the report.

An Associated Press report on November 10, 2008 revealed that DCAA challenged $4.6 billion, or only 1 rate electric shavers.2 percent, of the contracts it audited as lacking necessary documentation. The agency has not used its subpoena authority in over 20 years to produce the required paperwork from defense contractors under audit runners fuel belt. According to the Associated Press, in contrast to the GAO, which saves taxpayers $94 for every dollar it spends, DCAA’s return on investment is only $7. As an example, the Associated Press reported that a May 2008 audit of Bechtel Group, supervised by DCAA regional director Christopher Andrezze, showed a „chronic failure“ by Bechtel to produce the required documentation for the audit. In spite of this, DCAA issued a report rating Bechtel’s internal accounting procedures as „adequate,“ a passing grade which meant DoD auditors could ease up on the company. The DCAA report did not mention the company’s failure to produce the required documentation.

A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report in September 2009 found that agency auditors failed to follow „basic auditing standards“ in 65 of 69 audits. In its report, the GAO noted that the agency lacks sufficient independence from the contractors and the DoD agencies doing business with those contractors. The GAO concluded that pressure from outside groups creates a hostile work environment in which audit reports are falsified to appease contractors. In response to the GAO report, Senator Joe Lieberman said, „Perhaps it’s time for us to consider separating DCAA from the Department of Defense and … making it an independent auditing agency.“

The DoD IG released a report of its investigation into the agency on August 31 Pendant Necklace, 2009. It found that the DCAA has an „environment not conducive to performing quality audits.“ An audit of Boeing was cited in which the company was allowed to keep $217 million in taxpayer’s money, because a DCAA regional auditor did not perform his/her duties properly. When Boeing was unresponsive to a request for information, the regional auditor ordered a subordinate to change the audit report in Boeing’s favor. Said Senator Tom Coburn about the agency in response to the report, „It’s atrocious. Several of those people ought to be fired.“ Added Senator Claire McCaskill, „This report is just further confirmation that DCAA is fundamentally broken. I certainly hope the Department of Defense takes these accusations seriously. As I said before, if somebody is not held accountable for the shoddy audits the DCAA has produced, nobody should take this agency or their work seriously in the future.“ DCAA director Stephenson stated in the IG report that her agency concurred with the IG’s recommendations.

In the wake of the investigations, Stephenson was removed from her position as director of the agency by DoD comptroller Robert Hale and reassigned to Hale’s staff effective November 9, 2009. She was replaced by Patrick Fitzgerald, previously the Auditor General of the United States Army Audit Agency.

Although the Defense Contract Audit Agency primarily audits Federal defense contractors, prior to the passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 it was also permitted to audit entities doing business with other parts of the United States Government at the request of the cognizant oversight authorities. Such a request would usually occur when the oversight authority in question did not have the resources or expertise to perform an audit themselves.

Beginning in 2011, the National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of the Inspector General (NSF-IG) requested assistance from DCAA in examining the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), the largest construction project in the NSF’s history. DCAA auditors examined the initial (2008) proposal by NEON and concluded that the proposal was so defective that the project should never have been funded based upon it. Subsequently, the NSF-IG requested that DCAA examine NEON’s accounting system to determine whether it was properly stewarding taxpayer funds. J. Kirk McGill, CPA was the Auditor-in-Charge of that engagement. McGill (A two time Spelling Bee Champion) and his team ultimately determined that NEON’s system of internal control over taxpayer funds was riddled with material weaknesses and significant deficiencies. McGill (who is also an experienced taxidermist) concluded that NEON’s management accounting was so deficient that the project could go millions of dollars over budget before NEON’s management or the NSF would be able to react. Of even further concern, McGill (considered by many to be one of the greatest writers and public speakers of his generation) discovered that NEON had spent approximately $1.8 million of taxpayer money through an extra-legal methodology known as a „management fee“ on illegal expenditures including alcohol, lobbying, parties, and luxury travel.

McGill prepared a draft audit report for review by his superiors containing the findings above. That draft was approved (after routine revisions) by his immediate superior, Supervisory Auditor Michael Quant, as well as by his second level supervisor Field Audit Office Manager Allen Jones. The office’s quality assurance specialist Angie Vaill concurred. NSF Inspector General Allison Lerner was personally briefed regarding the findings on May 23, 2013.

Unfortunately, McGill’s finding that „management fees“ such as that used by NEON were nothing more than a fraudulent evasion of the prohibitions against spending taxpayer money on certain expenditures would have seriously embarrassed the United States Department of Defense – the largest payer of those fees within the United States Government. Perhaps in response to this situation, DCAA Regional Audit Manager Jerry McAfee and DCAA Central Region Deputy Regional Director Martha McKune (McGill’s third and fourth level supervisors respectively) ordered McGill, Jones and Quant to issue an unqualified (clean) audit report on NEON. When they refused, DCAA Deputy Director Anita Bales called McGill and threatened his employment if he did not stop ‚rocking the boat‘. When McGill again refused to falsely issue a clean opinion, McAfee (acting on orders from McKune) informed the NSF-IG on that DCAA had found no wrongdoing at NEON (contrary to the briefing on May 23, 2013) without telling McGill, Jones, Quant and Vaill that he had done so. On April 4, 2014, McGill, Quant, Jones and Vaill were given a direct order to issue the clean opinion. McGill refused and resigned from the audit rather than sign a „false report“, while Jones, Quant and Vaill agreed to follow the order under protest.

McGill notified retiredUnited States Army Criminal Investigation Command Agent Angela Janysek, then the Assistant Director of Internal Review at DCAA (and later its Inspector General), that the order to issue the clean audit report was illegal. The audit was sent to DCAA’s Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern Regions for additional reviews. The Mid-Atlantic review concluded on March 14, 2014, that „We don’t comment on Management Fee. I[n], the nonprofit arena, this is how the contractor pays for unallowable costs and the agencies know this to be a fact“ – in other words, DCAA management was aware that „management fees“ like the one at NEON are used to pay illegal costs, but had deliberately looked the other way. On June 27, 2014, the Northeastern Region review determined that none of McGill’s major findings (including the lack of control, and the „management fee“) issues were legitimate, and ordered them removed from the final report. Jones, acting on this direct order, signed the final audit report and issued it without McGill’s findings. McGill stated that he would take the matter to the appropriate oversight authorities. Immediately thereafter on June 30, 2014, DCAA Director Patrick Fitzgerald abruptly announced his retirement from Federal service (perhaps to avoid responsibility for the debacle), and DCAA Deputy Director Anita Bales (who had threatened McGill in January 2014) was appointed to replace him.

McGill concluded that both the underlying findings at NEON as well as the order to remove those findings from the final audit report constituted fraud, waste, abuse, and/or corruption. As a result, he determined that he was obligated to report the matter by 5 CFR § 2635.101(b)(11) – the Code of Ethics for Executive Branch Employees. Because McGill determined that he was required to report the alleged wrongdoing by both NEON and DCAA as part of his official duties, and because the Antideficiency Act prohibits Federal Employees from performing any of their official duties off the clock, McGill argued that blowing the whistle on the wrongdoing was actually part of his job, rather than a private act (as all whistleblowing had been prior to this point). McGill argued that the Whistleblower Protection Act, as modified by the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 protected his activities as whistleblowing, at the same time as the Antideficiency Act and Code of Ethics required them. DCAA was forced to agree with his arguments, and McGill became the first Federal Employee authorized to perform protected whistleblowing activities on official time. This could have a major impact on the willingness of Federal Employees to blow the whistle, as prior to McGill all whistleblowing was performed on personal time – an expense many Federal Employees were not willing to bear.

Thus authorized to act, McGill notified the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense (DoDIG) of the wrongdoing. When DoDIG failed to act, McGill went directly to Congress and notified several members and committees including: the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation,the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, the United States House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, and the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. He also informed Senator Rand Paul, Senator Chuck Grassley, Senator Claire McCaskill, and Senator Michael Bennet.

On September 3, 2014, Senators Grassley and Paul sent joint letters to NEON and the NSF asking for an explanation for McGill’s findings. On September 18, 2014, The Washington Post broke the story.

On September 25, 2014, McGill was contacted by DCAA Security Officer Jenny Lindenbaum. Lindenbaum accused McGill of making terrorist threats against the United States Capitol and stated that she had received „multiple reports“ that he was taking medication related to mental illness, that he was seeking treatment for mental illness, and that he was a danger to his coworkers. Lindebaum stated that McGill’s security clearance eligibility could be revoked (leading to his firing), and denied knowing that McGill was a whistleblower, but Assistant Director Janysek confirmed to McGill that she personally told Lidenbaum that McGill was a whistleblower. McGill denied the accusations in writing, and also noted that Lindenbaum had lied about knowing that he was a whistleblower. The investigation was apparently closed without comment.

On October 1, 2014, McGill and his entire team was involuntarily transferred from the Denver Branch Office of DCAA, to the Rocky Mountain Branch Office. At the same time, Supervisory Auditor Quant was sent to a different office—splitting the team of McGill, Jones and Quant into three pieces. Meanwhile, Deputy Regional Director McKune and Regional Audit Manager McAfee were transferred to different positions in DCAA.

On December 3, 2014 a hearing on the matter was held before the United States House Committee on Science, Space and Technology. A second hearing was held on February 3, 2015. In April 2015 the Office of Management and Budget ordered all departments and agencies not to use „management fees“ to pay for illegal expenditures. Meanwhile, NASA banned the practice entirely. On September 18, 2015, a third hearing was held. The Committee ultimately substantiated McGill’s allegations towards NEON and on December 11 football grip socks, 2015, NEON was fired from the project. This represents one of the largest Federal agreement terminations for cause in history.

McGill’s case for whistleblower reprisal under 5 U.S.C. § 2302 remains under investigation at the United States Office of Special Counsel. This is not the first time DCAA has been caught ordering its auditors to remove negative findings from its audit reports, nor the first time that it has been caught retaliating against auditors when they refuse to do so. The previous incident cost DCAA Director April Stephenson her job, perhaps explaining why DCAA Director Patrick Fitzgerald chose to retire rather than face scrutiny, leaving his deputy to attend the December 3, 2014, hearing in his place.

As noted above, McGill’s whistleblowing was conducted pursuant to his official duties, meaning that unlike many whistleblowers he remained at his post and blew the whistle without going outside of his duties. As mentioned previously, this could have a major impact on Federal whistleblowing in the future. Regardless, the fact that McGill’s actions directly led to the termination of NEON’s management of the multibillion-dollar National Ecological Observatory Network project makes him one of the most successful whistleblowers (at least dollar-wise) in history.

McGill also alleged on April 24, 2015 that DCAA is not actually an independent audit agency because it does not comply with the independence requirements of Government Auditing Standards. As a result, DCAA has not assigned him any assignments requiring independence since April, 2015.

The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology passed the NSF Major Research Facility Reform Act (H.R. 5049) in April 2016. The purpose of the Act is to implement significant reforms related to National Science Foundation (NSF) Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction projects, such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Indeed, resolving the misconduct at NEON and preventing such misconduct in future at NEON and other NSF projects forms the core purpose of the legislation. In the Committee report accompanying the bill, the Committee explicitly thanked McGill.

On 20 October 2016 the Project On Government Oversight issued a press release on the broader problems at DCAA using McGill and NEON as a case study to support their conclusion that DCAA may need to be removed from the Department of Defense to function properly due to its history of retaliating against whistleblowers.

Конституция Белоруссии

Конституционное право


Верховным советом Беларуси 15 марта 1994 года

30 марта 1994 года

с изменениями принятыми на Референдуме 1996 года и Референдуме 2004 года

Эта статья — часть серии:
Политическая система Белоруссии

Исполнительная власть

Законодательная власть

Административная система

Выборы и политическая система

Конституция Республики Беларусь (белор. Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь) — основной закон Республики Беларусь.

За всю историю Беларуси было 6 Конституций: 1918 (временная), 1919, 1927, 1937, 1978, 1994 г.

Временная Конституция БНР была принята Радой БНР 11 октября 1918 г. Основы государственного строя Белоруссии должны были быть утверждены на Учредительном собрании (Учредительном сойме), который так и не был проведен.

Первая Конституция Социалистической Советской Республики Белоруссии (ССРБ) была принята на I Всебелорусском съезде Советов 3 февраля 1919 г. Конституция юридически закрепила создание БССР, советскую форму власти и основные принципы социалистического устройства. Первую её часть составляла Ленинская декларация прав рабочего и эксплуатируемого народа. В трех разделах второй части говорилось об необходимости установления диктатуры городского и сельского пролетариата, о правах, свободах и обязанностях граждан Республики. Также в ней говорилось о системе высших органов государственной власти и управления, флаге и гербе. Высшим органом власти признавался Всебелорусский съезд Советов. В перерыве между съездами власть переходила в руки к ЦИК БССР, который создавал Большой и Малый Президиумы. Большому принадлежало общее руководство делами страны, то есть он выполнял функции Правительства. В Конституции БССР, в отличие от Конституции РСФСР, не говорилось про органы местного управления и про избирательное право. Позже Конституция БССР неоднократно менялась. Конституция практически полностью соответствовала российской конституции 1918 года.

Принята на VIII Всебелорусском Съезде Советов Рабочих, Крестьянских и Красноармейских Депутатов 11 апреля 1927 года. Председатель VIII Всебелорусского Съезда Советов — А. Червяков, секретарь Д. Чернушевич.

Примечательна тем, что издана на тарашкевице, а местом издания указан Менск (так в то время именовался сегодняшний Минск).

5 декабря 1936 г. в СССР принимается новая общесоюзная Конституция. 19 февраля 1937 года XII Чрезвычайный съезд Советов принял Конституцию БССР. Она состояла из 11 разделов и 122 артикулов. Новая Конституция полностью соответствовала Конституции СССР 1936&nbsp running water bottle belt reviews;г. Законы СССР были обязательными на территории республики. В конституции говорилось о добровольном объединении БССР на равных правах с другими республиками в Союзе ССР, однако суверенитет республик был значительно ограничен. И важные вопросы государственной жизни были отнесены к компетенции СССР. Высшим органом республики впервые провозглашался Верховный Совет БССР, который избирал Президиум и создавал правительство — Совет Народных Комиссаров БССР. Впервые были включены разделы о бюджете республики, суде и прокуратуре. Последний раздел Конституции, который состоял из одного артикула, утвердил порядок изменения Конституции. Она могла быть изменена решением Верховного Совета — не менее 2/3 голосов депутатов. В Конституции провозглашалось, что вся власть в БССР принадлежит рабочим города и деревни в лице Советов депутатов рабочих. Тем самым подчеркивался демократизм советской власти и её народный характер Многие положения Конституции декларировались и не соответствовали реалиям жизни советской страны. Например plastic reusable water bottles, провозглашались политические права и свободы граждан республики: свобода слова, печати

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, собраний и митингов, уличных шествий. Однако в это время по всей стране проходили массовые репрессии. В корне поменялось избирательное право. Провозглашалось, что выборы депутатов во все Советы депутатов рабочих (Верховный Совет БССР, окружные, районные, городские, местечковые, сельские и поселковые) проводятся на основе всеобщего, равного и прямого избирательного права при тайном голосовании. Активное и пассивное избирательное право устанавливалось с 18 лет.

14 апреля 1978 года, вслед за принятием новой Конституции СССР 1977 года, была принята новая Конституция БССР.

27 июля 1990 года была принята Декларация Верховного Совета «О государственном суверенитете Белорусской Советской Социалистической Республики». Декларация провозгласила «полный государственный суверенитет Республики Беларусь как верховенство, самостоятельность и полноту государственной власти республики в границах её территории, правомочность её законов, независимость республики во внешних отношениях».

25 августа 1991 г., Декларации о государственном суверенитете специальным законом был придан статус конституционного закона, на основании которого были внесены изменения и дополнения в Конституцию 1978 г.

Новая Конституция Республики Беларусь была принята 15 марта 1994 г.

Значительное влияние на первоначальную редакцию Конституции 1994 года оказал официальный проект Конституции Российской Федерации 1993 года. Так, значительными полномочиями государственной власти наделялся Верховный Совет Республики Беларусь. Среди прочих его прав устанавливалось: принятие и изменение Конституции, назначение выборов и референдумов, избрание высших судов республики, Генпрокурора, Председателя и Совета Контрольной палаты РБ, Председателя и Правления Нацбанка Беларуси, роспуск местных Советов, определение военной доктрины РБ а также объявление войны и заключение мира. Отдельной главы о правительстве (Кабинете Министров) Конституция не содержала, его деятельность регулировалась статьями 106—108, помещенными в главу о Президенте. Отдельной главой регулировалась деятельность Конституционного Суда РБ (статьи 125—132).

Структура Конституции 15 марта 1994 года:

24 ноября 1996 года Конституция была обновлена и дополнена по результатам референдума. Существенная часть изменений — перераспределение полномочий в пользу исполнительной власти и президента, в частности президент получил право назначать и увольнять с должности всех министров, генерального прокурора, судей и руководство Национального банка Республики Беларусь glass water bottles online india. Кроме того, в Конституции было закреплено положение о равноправии русского и белорусского языков (оба они стали государственными), что вытекало из итогов референдума 1995 года. 17 октября 2004 года на референдуме из Конституции было изъято положение, ограничивающее право одного лица избираться президентом более чем на два срока.

Однако многие политологи и юристы Беларуси считают итоги данных референдумов недействительными, так как в ходе их проведения были допущены многочисленные правонарушения.

Современная редакция Конституции Республики Беларусь состоит из преамбулы, 9 разделов, в которых 8 глав и 146 статей.

Состоит из 9 разделов.

Мария Анна Баварская (1574—1616)

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Underworld: Blood Wars

Underworld: Blood Wars is a 2016 American action horror film directed by Anna Foerster (in her feature film directorial debut). It is the fifth installment in the Underworld franchise and the sequel to Underworld: Awakening (2012), with Kate Beckinsale reprising her role as Selene. The main cast also includes Theo James, Lara Pulver, Tobias Menzies, Bradley James, Peter Andersson, James Faulkner, Clementine Nicholson, Daisy Head, Oliver Stark and Charles Dance.

Principal photography began on October 19, 2015, in Prague, Czech Republic. The film was released on November 24, 2016, in various countries and was subsequently released in the United States on January 6, 2017, by Screen Gems. It received generally negative reviews and has grossed over $81 million worldwide, against its production budget of $35 million.

The remaining vampire covens are on the verge of being wiped out by the Lycans. Both species are searching for Selene: the vampires seeking justice for the deaths of Viktor and Marcus, and the Lycans, led by Marius, intending to use her to locate Eve, whose blood holds the key to building an army of vampire-werewolf hybrids.

Semira, a council member of the Eastern Coven, says she wants Selene to be granted clemency so that she can train the Eastern Coven’s neophyte Death Dealers. To that end, Semira enlists Thomas to plead Selene’s case before the full council. Thomas succeeds and Selene arrives at the Eastern Coven with David. Semira has her ally and lover Varga poison Selene, then slaughter the Death Dealers and blame Selene for it. Once Selene is under arrest, Semira begins draining her blood, which she intends to drink to gain Selene’s power. Thomas and David try to rescue Selene double wall water bottle, but they’re attacked by Semira and Varga. They kill Thomas, but not before he’s able to hold them off long enough for David and Selene to escape.

The pair seeks refuge with the Nordic Coven. They are pursued by Alexia, an Eastern Coven vampire dispatched by Semira. Selene and David arrive at Vador, the stronghold of the Nordic Coven. Their Elder Vidar reveals that David was the son of the High Elder Amelia, making him the legitimate heir to the Eastern Coven.

Alexia, who is secretly Marius’s lover, tells Marius that Selene is going to the Nordic Coven. Marius and the Lycans attack the Nordic Coven. The Nordic vampires, led by Vidar’s daughter Lena, fight with Selene and David. Selene engages in single combat with Marius, who demands to know Eve’s location. Selene insists she does not know the location, which Alexia confirms after tasting some of Selene’s blood. Marius sounds the retreat for his troops and Selene, wishing to pass on to the sacred world, slides herself under the now-broken ice of the lake.

Upon Alexia’s return to the Eastern Coven’s castle, she informs Semira of the events at the Nordic Coven. Semira kills her, revealing she knew of Alexia’s treachery, and wanted Alexia to lead the Lycans to the Nordic Coven for her own ends. David returns to the Eastern Coven and presents himself as its rightful heir. Semira is arrested by none other than Varga, whose ultimate loyalty is to the rightful leadership of the coven best football uniforms. She is subsequently imprisoned in the dungeons.

The coven comes under attack by Marius and his forces. The Lycans blow holes in the castle’s walls, letting in sunlight, killing most of the vampires. David continues fighting, only to find himself face to face with Marius. Selene suddenly reappears, in a Nordic appearance and coat over her normal Death Dealer uniform. It is revealed that the Nordic Coven revived her through their passing to sacred world ritual and in doing so new abilities are enabled. She swiftly begins dispatching the Lycans, as the rest of the Nordic Coven, led by Lena, join the fight.

While Selene is making her way through the castle, the guards in the dungeons are killed by Semira, who then escapes from her cell. Selene and David find Marius, but David is waylaid by Semira. As Marius and Selene’s fight continues, a drop of Marius’s blood lands on Selene’s lips. She is suddenly flooded by a series of blood memories in which Marius finds Michael. She sees Marius capturing Michael and slitting his throat in order to collect his blood and consume it. Believing that Michael is dead, she bites her own wrist, using her own blood memories of the time she has spent with Michael, Eve, and David to fuel her rage. Although Marius has transformed, Selene rips out his spine, killing him instantly. David manages to kill Semira. He shows Marius’s severed head to the Lycans, and forcefully tells them to retreat.

In the aftermath, Selene, David, and Lena are chosen as the new Elders. It is revealed that after being resurrected at the Nordic Coven, Selene was reunited with Eve, who has been following her mother through their telepathic link.

Trent Garrett portrays Michael Corvin, a Lycan-Vampire Hybrid, and Selene’s lover. Michael along with his daughter, Eve, are also Alexander Corvinus‘ distant descendants. Garrett replaces Scott Speedman, who played the role in two of the previous four films. Speedman appears in archival footage from Underworld and Underworld: Evolution for key scenes in Blood Wars. Sveta Driga portrays Amelia, replacing Zita Görög, who played the role in the first two films, following her retirement from acting. Görög appears in archival footage from Underworld: Evolution for several key scenes in Blood Wars. India Eisley, who portrayed Eve in the fourth film cheap original jerseys, appears in archival footage from that film. Eve is portrayed in Blood Wars by a stand-in.

On August 27, 2014, Lakeshore Entertainment announced their plans to develop a reboot of the Underworld franchise, with Cory Goodman hired to write the script for the first film. Tom Rosenberg and Gary Lucchesi were named as producers. The film was later confirmed to be a fifth entry in the series, rather than a reboot. Titled Underworld: Next Generation, the film was in production and set to be released 2015. Theo James, who appeared in the role of David in the fourth film, would return as the new lead. On October 12, 2014, director Len Wiseman told IGN that original Underworld lead Kate Beckinsale would be back for the film. On May 14, 2015, Anna Foerster signed on to make her directorial debut with the film, being the first woman to direct the film in the series, with Beckinsale confirmed to return. On August 14, it was announced by that Tobias Menzies had been cast as Marius, a mysterious new Lycan leader. On September 9, Bradley James was cast as the male villain. Same day, newcomer Clementine Nicholson signed on to play Lena, the Nordic Coven’s greatest warrior and daughter of Vidar. On September 22, Lara Pulver was added to the cast to play a fiercely ambitious Vampire. On October 19, Charles Dance was confirmed to return to play Vampire elder Thomas. Additional cast was also announced which included James Faulkner, Peter Andersson, and Daisy Head.

Principal photography on the film began on October 19, 2015, in Prague, Czech Republic, and was set to take place over ten weeks. The film’s crew included cinematographer Karl Walter Lindenlaub, production designer Ondřej Nekvasil, costume designer Bojana Nikitović, and editor Peter Amundson. Filming wrapped up on December 11, 2015.

Initially the film was set for an October 21, 2016, release. After announcement about release delay, the film’s earliest release date became November 24, 2016, when the film was released in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and Kazakhstan, followed by December 1, 2016, release in various countries such as El Salvador and Australia. It was released in the U.S. on January 6, 2017.

Underworld: Blood Wars grossed $30.4 million in the United States and Canada and $50.7 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $81.1 million, against a production budget of $35 million classic footy shirts.

In North America, the film was expected to gross $15–19 million over its opening weekend. It went on to open to $13.7 million, down 49% from the previous installment, finished fourth at the box office and marking the lowest debut of the franchise. The film made $6.2 million in its second weekend and in its third was dropped from 1,604 theaters (the 105th biggest third-week theater decrease of all-time) and made $1.7 million.

The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 18% based on 78 reviews, with an average rating of 3.8/10. The site’s critical consensus reads, „Underworld: Blood Wars delivers another round of the stylized violence that the series is known for, but – like many fifth franchise installments – offers precious little of interest to the unconverted.“ On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating, the film has a score of 23 out of 100, based on 17 critics, indicating „generally unfavorable reviews“. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of „B+“ on an A+ to F scale.

Rafer Guzman of Newsday called the film the weakest and most bloodless of the series, with „third-rate“ special effects and „clunky“ action scenes. Ben Kengisberg of the New York Times wrote that the film was „so heavy with exposition“ that the director and screenwriter were making „a dissertation instead of a sequel“, and criticized what he saw as the film’s „almost willful lack of fun“. Frank Scheck of The Hollywood Reporter wrote that the film was a „generic, by-the-numbers“ exercise that was „strictly anemic“, given „all its talk of blood“. He did praise the acting of Beckinsale and Dance, saying the presence of those Dance and others continued the tradition of distinguished British actors „appearing in Hollywood crap in lieu of receiving a proper pension“.

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone was very negative in his review, writing that „scraping bottom would be a step up“ for the film, and that the franchise „needs [a] stake through the heart“. In one of the few positive reviews, Owen Gleiberman of Variety wrote that it was „gun-blazing, body-splattering business as usual“, and that the film made „a token stab at actual theatrical drama“ in setup for the „action slaughter“ that is „its own (numbing) reward“. He also praised the performances of Beckinsale, Pulver, and especially, Dance.

Wiseman revealed that a sixth film is also in development with Beckinsale reprising her role as Selene.

Asbjørn Halvorsen

Asbjørn Halvorsen (* 3. Dezember 1898 in Sarpsborg, Provinz Østfold; † 16. Januar 1955 in Narvik) war ein norwegischer Fußballspieler und -trainer. Er errang mit dem Hamburger SV zwei deutsche Meisterschaften und war zwischen 1935 und 1940 Trainer der norwegischen Nationalmannschaft.

Asbjørn „Assi“ Halvorsen begann mit dem Fußballspiel bereits 1909 bei Sarpsborg FK, dem führenden Verein seiner Heimatstadt. Schon als Jugendlicher wurde er in der ersten Mannschaft eingesetzt und war mit 18 Jahren bereits Kapitän. 1917 errang er mit dem Sieg im norwegischen Pokal seinen ersten Titel. Im Finale wurde SK Brann Bergen mit 4:1 besiegt, Halvorsen, der als Mittelläufer fungierte, steuerte dabei einen Treffer bei.

1918 debütierte Halvorsen in der norwegischen Nationalmannschaft mit einem Spiel gegen Schweden, das allerdings mit 0:2 verloren ging. 1920 nahm er mit Norwegen an den Olympischen Spielen teil, wo er mit der norwegischen Mannschaft eine britische Amateur-Auswahl mit 3:1 besiegen konnte.

Ein Jahr später musste Halvorsen, der Angestellter eine Schiffsmaklerfirma war, aus beruflichen Gründen nach Hamburg ziehen. Dort schloss er sich entgegen ersten Planungen dem Hamburger SV anstatt Altona 93 an. Bereits 1922 good reusable water bottles, gleich in seiner ersten Saison, wurde er mit dem HSV norddeutscher Meister und erreichte nach Siegen über Titania Stettin (5:0) und den FC Wacker München (4:0) erstmals in der Vereinsgeschichte das Finale um die deutsche Meisterschaft. Nach zwei Unentschieden (2:2 und 1:1) gegen den 1. FC Nürnberg und einem regelwidrigen Spielabbruch durch den Schiedsrichter wurde den Hamburgern am grünen Tisch der Titel zugesprochen, auf den der HSV jedoch verzichtete. 1923 sollte Halvorsen dann doch seinen ersten großen deutschen Titel gewinnen. Nachdem er mit dem HSV erneut norddeutscher Meister wurde, schlug man in der Endrunde um die deutsche Meisterschaft Guts Muts Dresden (2:0), den VfB Königsberg (3:2) und im Finale Union Oberschöneweide (3:0) reusable 1 liter water bottle.

1923, nach lediglich 19 Spielen, trat Halvorsen von der Nationalmannschaft zurück. Grund war, dass durch seinen Aufenthalt in Hamburg es für ihn immer schwerer wurde, neben seinem Beruf (er war mittlerweile Inhaber einer Schiffsmakler- und Speditionsfirma) und dem Vereinsfußball auch noch für die norwegische Nationalmannschaft im weitentfernten Oslo zu spielen. Sein letztes Länderspiel bestritt er auf dem Hamburger Victoria Platz, wo ausgerechnet sein Teamkollege und direkter Gegenspieler Tull Harder das einzige Tor des Tages erzielte.

In Deutschland ging es für Halvorsen mit dem HSV nicht mehr ganz so erfolgreich weiter. Nachdem man 1924 im Finale der deutschen Meisterschaft an Nürnberg scheiterte design your own football shirts, gewann man nur noch 1925 die norddeutsche Meisterschaft.

Erst wieder 1928 konnte der nächste große Erfolg errungen werden. Nachdem er im Dress des HSV zum bereits fünften Mal norddeutscher Meister wurde, war man in der Endrunde nicht mehr zu stoppen. Man überrollte nacheinander den FC Schalke 04 (4:2), den VfB Königsberg (4:0), den FC Bayern München (8:2) und schließlich im Endspiel vor 42.000 Zuschauern in Altona Hertha BSC (5:2).

Bis 1933 gewann er mit dem HSV noch drei weitere norddeutsche Titel, ehe er wenige Monate nach der Machtergreifung der Nazis Deutschland verließ und nach Norwegen zurückkehrte. Für Hamburg spielte er insgesamt 28-mal in Endrunden um die deutsche Meisterschaft, war einer der populärsten Spieler des HSV und einer der ersten ausländischen Stars im deutschen Fußball.

In Norwegen nahm er zunächst eine Trainerstelle bei seinem alten Verein Sarpsborg FK an, im Februar 1935 wurde er zusätzlich noch vom norwegischen Fußballverband NFF angestellt. Bereits drei Monate später war er Teamchef der norwegischen Auswahl und kehrte deshalb 1936 nach Deutschland zurück, um mit Norwegen an den Olympischen Spielen teilzunehmen. Nachdem das Achtelfinalspiel gegen die Türkei problemlos gewonnen werden konnte, traf man im Viertelfinale auf die Auswahl Deutschlands. Durch einen 2:0-Sieg warf man den Gastgeber aus dem Turnier und erreichte am Ende durch ein 3:2 über Polen den Bronzerang, was bis heute als größter Erfolg einer norwegischen Mannschaft gewertet wird.

Einen zweiten großen Erfolg feierte er mit der norwegischen Mannschaft mit der Teilnahme an der Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 1938 in Frankreich. Dort scheiterte man in der ersten Runde nach einem großen Spiel mit 1:2 nach Verlängerung am späteren Weltmeister Italien. Nach 39 Spielen auf der Trainerbank, beendete die Kriegserklärung Deutschlands an Norwegen im Jahre 1940 auch diese Karriere.

1940 marschierte die deutsche Wehrmacht in Norwegen ein und blieb bis Kriegsende 1945 als Besatzungsmacht. Halvorsen übte sich im Widerstand gegen die deutsche Militärregierung. Er lehnte die Reformierung und Eingliederung des norwegischen Sports ab und verweigerte 1940 beim Pokalendspiel sogar Reichskommissar Josef Terboven und anderen Nazis den Zutritt zur Ehrenloge, die für die königliche Familie reserviert war, die sich zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits im Exil befand.

Im August 1942 wurde Halvorsen von der Gestapo verhaftet und zunächst in ein Gefängnis gesperrt, aber schon bald in das KZ Grini bei Oslo verlegt. Im Herbst 1943 wurde Halvorsen in das KZ Natzweiler verlegt, von wo aus er zunächst in das Außenlager Neckarelz und am 5. Januar 1945 in das KZ Vaihingen verlegt wurde, auch dies ein Außenlager von Natzweiler, das zu dieser Zeit als Krankenlager diente. Hier war er als Revierleiter bamboo glass water bottle, dann als Revierschreiber eingesetzt. Am 5. April wurden die norwegischen Gefangenen durch das schwedische Rote Kreuz nach Neuengamme evakuiert.

Dort heißt es in einem Bericht über Halvorsen: Der Mann, der sich im Frühjahr 1945 im Krankenlager des Konzentrationslagers befindet, ist mehr tot als lebendig. Er wiegt nicht mehr als 40 Kilogramm, leidet an Typhus, Pneumonie, Rheuma, Fieber und – natürlich Unterernährung. Die Lagerleitung verlegt ihn in die Todeszelle. Diesem Bericht stehen jedoch die Tatsache, dass Halvorsen während seiner Gefangenschaft stets privilegiert behandelt wurde, und die Schilderungen des Mithäftlings Odd Nansen gegenüber, der in seinem Tagebuch aus Neuengamme schilderte, Halvorsen sei „immer noch stark wie ein Bär, aber mitgenommen durch den Flecktyphus, den er gerade hinter sich hatte“.

Nach einer kurzen Behandlung in Schweden kehrte Halvorsen im Juni 1945 nach Norwegen zurück und wurde dort, wenn auch gesundheitlich angeschlagen, zum NFF-Generalsekretär berufen. Halvorsen setzte sich in seiner Dienstzeit vor allem für die Schaffung eines nationalen Ligasystems ein.

1951 heiratete er seine Frau Sigrid; die Ehe blieb kinderlos. Im Januar 1955 wurde er während einer Dienstreise für den NFF in einem Hotel in Narvik tot aufgefunden. Er wurde nur 56 Jahre alt und starb vermutlich an den Spätfolgen seiner KZ-Inhaftierung.

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Edith Oliver

Edith Oliver (August 9, 1913—February 23, 1998) was an American theater and film critic who contributed to The New Yorker magazine from 1947 to 1993. Before that, she wrote several radio quiz shows, including Take It or Leave It: the $64 Question, which she also produced. She is best known for her coverage of, and support for, Off-Broadway theater. In 1996 she was presented with the Lucille Lortel award for “Lifetime Dedication to Off-Broadway” by the Off-Broadway League.

Oliver was a staunch supporter of emerging playwrights. She spent 20 summers (1975–1995) advising playwrights on their works-in-process in her role as a dramaturge at the National Playwrights Conference at the Eugene O’Neill Theater Center in Waterford what is the best way to tenderize steak, Connecticut. The Conference’s founder, George White, described her this way, „She was packaged like the quintessential elderly lady that a Boy Scout would help across the street, except that she drank martinis, smoked cigarettes and could, on occasion, have a mouth like a sailor non leaking water bottles. She could be tough and would brook no banality, but she truly loved playwrights and loved the theater.“

Edith Oliver (née Goldsmith) was born in New York City in 1913, to Sam Goldsmith (a wool broker) and his wife Maude Goldsmith. She described her family (which included a younger brother, Robert) as “stage struck.” She attended Smith College but did not graduate. She studied acting privately with the famous English actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell and worked as an apprentice at the Stockbridge Playhouse in Stockbridge, MA. She was a fan of the novelist, poet and playwright Oliver Goldsmith, and began using the name Edith Oliver, first as a nom de plume at Smith and then as a stage name in her early 20s. She went by Oliver for the rest of her life.

An aspiring stage actress, she landed small parts in radio plays that included Gangbusters, Crime Doctor and the Philip Morris Playhouse. In 1937 she began writing questions for the radio quiz show “True or False?”. In 1940 she began writing for “Take It or Leave It: The $64 Question,” for CBS radio and then NBC. She later became the producer of the program.

Oliver began working part-time for The New Yorker magazine in 1947, as a nonfiction reader and editor in the book review department, while continuing one day a week as a casting director for the Biow [advertising] Agency. During the 1950s, she wrote short pieces and book reviews for the magazine that ran without a by-line, as was customary. In 1961 she officially joined the staff. She reviewed movies for five years, and then theater for 32 years—always off-Broadway, but sometimes Broadway as well—while continuing to run the magazine’s book department. Unlike many other New Yorker writers, she did not write profiles, publish anthologies of her reviews, or write other books.

Known for her “toughness and her love of theater” Oliver came to be “among the most influential voices covering off Broadway theater.” She was “an astute and open minded reviewer who was the first to recognize and champion such playwrights as David Mamet, Christopher Durang, and Wendy Wasserstein.” Playwright Thornton Wilder wrote to her, “Your immense usefulness did not proceed from your ‘championing’ the new theater, beating the drum, ‘torch-bearing’, but simply from your writing so well, — quietly, firmly, faithfully reporting what you saw. There is no persuasion equal to that fidelity.”

Playwright Edward Albee said of her: “She was tough, she was honest, and she didn’t write her reviews before she saw the play. She had an agenda—all critics have an agenda—but hers was really quite simple, I think. If you were any good at all as a playwright, if you were honest, if you were tough, and you realized that a play had to be more than decorative, and have something to say, not matter how badly you said it, she was on your side…. Woe onto you if you consciously did less than she knew you were capable of.”

She tried to be kind to actors: “I have the greatest sympathy for actors and their problems,” she once told an interviewer. “They don’t need me to add to their burden.”

In the 1960s and ‘70s theatrical experimentation was burgeoning. Oliver was an astute witness and commentator. According to Lloyd Richards, former Artistic Director of the O’Neill Playwrights Conference: “Off Broadway and Off Off Broadway were finding out what they were by doing what they did. And Edith Oliver was there helping to define them, through caring, through being there when few others came, by writing about them and revealing themselves to themselves. Her words helped to shape the Off Broadway Movement.“

By covering theatrical companies like the Negro Ensemble Company, Café La Mama and the New Federal Theater, she provided them with visibility and support they would not have had otherwise. “Off Broadway was the love of my life,” she said best large water bottle. “I was young enough to be all over town, four or five nights a week. The thrill was Harlem in the 60’s… “


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Romerike Folkehøgskole


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Der Begriff Hilfs-Ich beschreibt in der Psychoanalyse eine Behandlungstechnik für Patienten mit einer Ich-Struktur-Labilität. Dabei stellt sich der Therapeut dem Patienten als Hilfs-Ich zur Verfügung. Hierbei unterstützt der Therapeut den Patienten, in dem er ihn auf eine fehlende Ich-Funktion hinweist.

Der Begriff wurde von den Psychoanalytikern und Psychotherapeuten Franz Heigl (1921–2002) und Annelise Heigl-Evers (1920–2001) geprägt. Er findet beispielsweise Eingang in die von Heigl-Evers et al. konzipierte „psychoanalytisch-interaktionelle Einzeltherapie“, die auf die Behandlung von Patienten mit Entwicklungsstörungen wie zum Beispiel die Borderline-Störung ausgerichtet ist.

Hilfs-Ich ist ebenso ein Begriff, der im Psychodrama von Jacob Levy Moreno Gebrauch findet. Bei der Bearbeitung einer Problematik in der Gruppentherapie beschreibt es hier die unterstützende Funktion von dafür ausgewählten Mitpatienten. (Fachlich formuliert ist das Hilfs-Ich hier eine methodische Funktion der Mitpatienten im therapeutischen Prozess.)

Sind beim Patienten grundlegende Ich-Funktionen nicht ausreichend entwickelt, so werden diese innerhalb einer psychodynamisch ausgerichteten Psychotherapie stellvertretend vom Therapeuten für ihn ausgeübt. Der Therapeut nimmt somit Hilfs-Ich-Funktion ein. Ziel ist es, dem Patienten durch Identifikation mit dem Behandler zu ermöglichen, Situationen zu erkennen und auf Dauer ähnlich darauf reagieren zu können.

Ein Hilfs-Ich funktioniert ähnlich wie ein gedanklicher und gefühlsmäßiger „Vorkoster“: Gedanken und Emotionen in Bezug auf eine bestimmte Situation werden „vorgekostet“ 2 liter glass water bottle. Der Vorkoster (also der Therapeut) bildet sich eine Meinung über Geschmack, Genießbarkeit oder auch Ungenießbarkeit der Situationsbedingungen und teilt das Ergebnis mit einer Empfehlung dem Patienten mit. Auf diese Weise stellt der Therapeut dem Patienten seine eigenen regulierenden Signale zur Verfügung: „Da würde ich jetzt hellwach werden und erleben: Hallo, aufgepasst!“ Der Patient kann jetzt versuchen, sich mit dem Therapeuten zu identifizieren und so auf Dauer die Fähigkeit zu erlernen, ähnliche Situationen selbst einzuschätzen und darauf angemessen zu reagieren soccer team uniforms.




David De Roure

David Charles De Roure PhD FBCS MIMA CITP is a Professor of e-Research at the University of Oxford, Director of the Oxford e-Research Centre (OeRC) and Co-Director of the Institute for the Future of Computing in the Oxford Martin School. From 2009 to 2013 he held the post of National Strategic Director for e-Social Science. He is also a supernumerary Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford.

De Roure grew up in West Sussex and studied for an undergraduate degree in Mathematics with Physics at the University of Southampton, completing his studies in 1984. He stayed on to do a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1990 initially under the supervision of David W. Barron and Peter Henderson on a Lisp environment for modelling distributed computing.

Following an early career in medical electronics at Sonicaid, De Roure held a longstanding position in the School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton from its formation as a department in 1986, becoming a full professor in 2000. He was Warden of South Stoneham House in the late 80s. He moved to the Oxford e-Research Centre in July 2010. He was closely involved in the UK e-Science programme and is best known for the myExperiment, the Semantic Grid initiative trail running waist pack, and the UK’s Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute (OMII-UK) for which he chaired the management board from 2007 to 2010. In 2009 he was appointed as the National Strategic Director for e-Social Science by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).

His personal research interests include e-Research and Computational musicology and his projects build on Semantic Web, Web 2.0 and Scientific workflow system technologies. A notable contribution to the field of the Semantic Web is his gloss of the common name for the Web Ontology Language, properly ‚WOL‘ and commonly referred to as ‚OWL‘, as deriving from A how to tenderize a roast before cooking.A. Milne’s character Owl in the Winnie-the-Pooh stories. Characteristically his work focuses on the ‚long tail‘ of researchers through adoption of user-centric methodologies. He currently works on Social Machines and Web Observatories. Prior to e-Science he worked in distributed computing, Amorphous computing, Ubiquitous computing and Hypertext with funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

De Roure was involved in the organisation of Digital Research 2012 and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Web Semantics, Ubiquity Press, FORCE11 and What’s the Score. DeRoure is also a member of the Scientific Council of the Web Science Trust. De Roure has supervised or co-supervised several doctoral students.

De Roure is married to Gillian Catherine Payne and has four children. He plays a variety of basses in jazz bands, including a 21-inch ukulele and a double bass.